болезни деревьев

Tree diseases caused by fungi

Peptic ulcer of the tree.

The person who chooses a tree in the Garden Center has a task – to grow a fast-growing healthy tree that can fight the penetration of pathogenic microorganisms into the bark with a good program of tree care.

Caring for a tree is to help avoid the tree of stress. Fungi and bacteria are always around and naturally living on the surface of the bark. They look for opportunities to penetrate natural and artificial wounds and usually have a chance if the tree is under stress.

Stress factors are:

Wrong landing.
Mechanical injuries (including damage to roots during excavation, as well as lawn mowers, cars, animals).
Pruning in the formation of the crown, wounds.
Too dense soil.
Nutrition of a tree is its imbalance.
The sun is summer or winter (burns).
Air temperature – extremely high or low.
Strong wind, hail, downpour.
Drought or flood.
Root rot and insects.

Хвороби дерев

Peptic ulcer is caused by many fungi.

With a good tree care program, it is possible to use the right pruning methods. Take care not to overfeed. Do not allow pests and diseases to inhabit the tree. It is necessary not to make wounds where there are already active ulcers that spread controversy. It is important that your tree has plenty of water. Protect him from mechanical injuries. For planting a tree, choose healthy planting material. Stimulate the growth of the tree, preparing it in moderation. Fight weeds for several years after planting. In the dry summer, use drip irrigation, and do not forget about drainage in places where it is needed.

Damage (ulcers) can be controlled at an early stage by using the correct pruning method. Remember, if an ulcer begins to form on the trunk, the tree may begin to separate from the damage, sealing the wood cells around the ulcer. Systemic fungicides should also be used to control the disease.

Beautiful and healthy landscapes for you.

You can get a consultation and order the service by phone: +380800750842


Order a tree treatment service


пожелтение хвои у сосны

Yellowing of pine needles

Did your evergreen plant start to turn yellow in the spring? The usual time of seasonal fall of needles is autumn and this is a natural process. Therefore, you need to pay attention to who or what is the cause of yellowing – it may be symptoms of pests or cultural problems. Several pests are known to feed on pine needles.

For some species, such as white pine and Scots pine, yellowing of older needles is a natural phenomenon. Usually pine holds needles for only one or two years. When in summer and autumn, the fall of the needle occurs over a long period of time, and it becomes more noticeable – this is a cause for concern.

Other conifers, such as the Fraser Fir, the Concolor Fir, the Douglas Fir, and others, hold their needles for five or more years, so in late September or October, internal needles rarely fall off. This may be a natural process of loss of the oldest internal needles, but it can also be a symptom caused by several pests or other factors. Usually, the main culprits are either spider mite damage, needle diseases, nutrient deficiencies or tree stress symptoms, such as heat (prolonged high temperatures) or drought (long periods of lack of soil moisture).

Here are some things to look for to help you diagnose what’s going on in your area.

Mite damage:

The needles will show the characteristic “dotted”. When mites feed, they release the cell from the green chlorophyll. This results in yellowish spots along the needles.

Diseases of the needle:

Diseases caused by Rhizosphaera or Stigminia / Mycosphaerella on spruce and Swiss needle on fir. Using a hand lens, we see black fruiting bodies protruding from the stomata of infected needles. On a healthy needle the stomata are white.

Lack of nutrients:

Symptoms of nutrient deficiency can be anything from pale green to chlorosis of the needle (yellowing) of the needle tips and the whole needle. Look for other signs of defects and samples of damage throughout the site.

Stress – thermal or water:

The fall of leaves or needles is a common reaction of a tree to heat or drought. Needles can dry out during long dry or hot periods in late August and September, turn yellowish-brown, but remain on the trees until autumn, and then come off and fall during processing.

Maybe it’s a spider mite or a needle fungus, you need to develop a plan to control these pests next year.

In case of other possible stress, evaluate the area, and this fall take a sample of soil or leaves to determine if you need to adjust the fertilizer program.

Another pest of pine – leaf nematode, also called pine wilting nematode. Nematodes feed on plant tissues, causing the needles to turn yellow.

The pine nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus kills conifers, especially pines, many species. Scots pine is most often affected by the host. The nematode is transmitted by sawfly beetles, bark beetles, through their nutrient wounds into the resin channels. Here the nematode multiplies and impedes the movement of water through aquatic tissues, eventually causing the plant to wither.

Symptoms and diagnosis:

Early symptoms of pine wilting are often invisible or insignificant, alternating with rapid disappearance. The first visible symptoms usually include pale green and / or slight yellowing of the extremities. It can be obvious on one or more branches or can develop on all at once. In addition, within 48 hours after infection, there will be a visible loss of resin fluidity, which is observed on the cut branch. Trees often die so quickly that brown needles continue to cling to the branches. Sick pines usually die in early summer or early autumn, some species need 2 seasons.

Confirmation of the disease is carried out by detecting the pathogenic nematode under a microscope in the study of infected wood samples from the main trunk or affected branches.

Life cycle:

Once the host plant has been infected with the pine nematode through the nutrition of the bark beetle, the nematode will feed and reproduce in the resin channels. When deciduous symptoms appear, a population of 1000 nematodes per gram of wood may occur. When stressors such as high temperatures, drought, or other pathogens increase, nematode populations increase. After the death of the host plant, the nematode turns into a latent form, and at this stage the larvae of the bark beetle, which feeds on the tree, can connect. This dispersed stage of the nematode migrates to the pupae of the bark beetle, then enters the bodies of newly formed adults of the bark beetle, which will look for other tree hosts, and repeat the life cycle of nematodes.

Pest control strategies:

– Do not leave an infected tree on the site. It is important to interrupt the life cycle of nematodes. Infected wood should be burned, can not be used as mulch to prevent the reproduction and overwintering of bark beetles in infected wood, and periods of high temperatures in summer contribute to epidemics, as well as periods of severe drought.

– Choose evergreen trees that are more resistant to pine nematodes. For example, blue, Norwegian and Serbian spruce, as well as oriental white pine. Avoid more susceptible species such as Scots pine, Austrian pine, Japanese black pine, red pine and long-leaved pine.

– Maintain the health of trees. Even a healthy tree can be infected with a pine forest nematode, and stressed trees are more attractive for bark beetle feeding. Arrange watering during long periods of drought.

– Periodically feed the trees in moderation.

– During the construction period it is important to prevent damage to the root system of trees.

– When driving on the site, protect the hole for the root system and trunks – all this reduces the likelihood of infection with butterflies and transmission of nematodes.

We can help!


Order a pine treatment service



послуги фітопатолога

Phytopathologist and his role in plant life

Communication on phytopathology – what is it?

Conscious systemic regularity or extreme necessity?

It is no secret that all of us, or most of us, to a greater or lesser extent, are engaged in self-medication.

We go to the doctor when it is very bad.

We go to the vet – only when we realize that we can not cope with the illness of a shaggy friend. Sometimes we are late with help.

With trees in a different way – they are silent. You need to be very careful to notice that there are problems in the garden.

And again we try to help the sick tree ourselves. And only then, having tried ways to get rid of the disease or damage to the tree, using the advice of acquaintances, friends or neighbors, in extreme cases, seek professional help – go to a phytopathologist.

Sometimes it’s too late. There are diseases of trees, when only the decorative plants suffer, but there are cases, outbreaks, when you can not delay, so as not to lose adult trees.

But there is a way when on time – this is a specially designed scheme of care, protection against pests and disease prevention just for your garden. A professional phytopathologist can help with this.

Beautiful healthy gardens for you!

Послуги знищення комарів

Mosquitoes and man

болезни деревьев

Mosquitoes are widespread all over the world.

The most widely represented common mosquito (Culex pipiens), which lives wherever its main victim – a person – lives.

Adult female mosquitoes are found in summer in residential and recreational areas, including vegetation around parks, overgrown areas and fields, in wet and damp places, in residential buildings on walls, windows, and in animal enclosures, in shaded areas.

A mosquito lives from egg laying to adulthood from 15 to 60 days, depending on the ambient temperature. The female mosquito lays 30-150, sometimes up to 280 eggs every 2-3 days. Larvae are usually born within 48 hours, but in some mosquito species the eggs survive the winter.

The larva goes through three molts, and after the fourth it becomes a pupa. The development time of larvae and pupae depends on the temperature. Mosquitoes usually become adults after 7-15 days, but sometimes their development takes more than a month. Mosquitoes almost always need blood to reproduce eggs, so the egg-laying cycle depends on blood consumption.

Females usually live 2-3 weeks,

but there are cases up to 114-119 days, it depends on the air temperature and the availability of food. Males live much less.

During a warm period of time, 3-4 generations of mosquitoes grow in middle latitudes. Mosquitoes hibernate in the imago phase (fertilized females), the larvae hibernate in more or less warm places: in livestock premises, warm basements, caves, tree hollows, burrows, residential apartments, other buildings where they are not very active, and if the temperature below zero, then in numbness.

Mosquitoes are carriers of dangerous diseases.

Also, their bites can cause itching and an allergic reaction, which is indicated in medical records as a reaction to an insect bite. The female injects saliva containing anticoagulants that prevent blood clotting into the skin of her victim before she begins to drink the blood. And mosquito saliva causes itching, swelling, redness at the site of the bite, and in some cases a severe allergic reaction. Infections carried by mosquitoes are also transmitted with saliva.

The easiest and best way to avoid reaction problems is to avoid mosquito bites.

How to prevent mosquito breeding and mosquito bites:

  • Near the house, you need to remove thick vegetation where morning and evening dew accumulates (mow)
  • It is necessary to thin out vegetation, make tunnels for air movement, eliminate its stagnation.
  • Remove areas of standing water around your home, including swimming pools that are not maintained.
  • In the evening and morning, when mosquitoes are most active, try not to spend time outside.
  • When mosquitoes are active at home or when you go outside to an area with a lot of mosquitoes, you can use repellents to minimize the impact of bites
  • Repellents: When you are outside, use insect repellent. Follow the instructions on the package.
  • Make sure doors and windows are tightly closed.
  • Provide a place to sleep, for this use a mosquito net when sleeping outside.

Caring for babies:

Put a mosquito net on the stroller during the walk.

Wear protective clothing, pants and long-sleeved shirts when outdoors, and spray repellent on clothing and exposed skin. Light-colored clothing can help you see mosquitoes landing on you.

And when, having taken all precautionary measures, you, having left the house, still hear the shrill squeal of a female mosquito, remember one more WAY to avoid bites:

Conduct a mosquito control operation in your home area!

Effective control of the adult mosquito population by SPRAYING! on exterior surfaces and the area depends on a number of external factors, including timing, level of contamination, methodology used during application, and weather conditions.

The products are certified and approved for ground and aerial use in outdoor residential and recreational areas and other similar areas to control adult populations of mosquitoes that can transmit disease.

This level of health impact is much less than constant contact with the application and spraying of mosquito repellents on the skin, clothing, in rooms with steaming fumigators.

Killing adult mosquitoes helps control the size of mosquito populations and prevent the spread of disease. Mosquito populations are constantly dying off and recovering, and such an operation will not eliminate all adult mosquitoes.

Ensure your restful sleep, admire sunrises and sunsets, enjoy summer evenings in the circle of family and friends in the open air with a cup of fragrant tea without the annoying squealing of mosquitoes. Everything is in your hands!

                                                                                              We can help!

Регенеративное сельское хозяйство

Regenerative agriculture – what is it?

Regenerative agriculture is, in other words, regenerative agriculture, where farmers rely on natural soil fertility to produce food, a return to traditional practices that include farming practices used several generations ago but armed with high-tech innovative solutions that combine natural soil productivity based on the study of the microbiome and the ability to influence fertility, soil health, arable and cover technologies of crops, afforestation.

The main task of restorative agriculture is to obtain healthy plant products due to the natural fertility of the soil, thereby reducing the carbon footprint that affects climate change by applying natural fertilizers that can be applied on site or other material that can decompose on site, or , when this plant material is digested and remains after grazing animals.

Regenerative agriculture helps fight climate change, because when carbon is grown or returned to the soil through crop rotation, cover crops, zero tillage practices, it increases the organic matter content of the soil, plants grow with a stronger root system, become stronger and healthier , having the ability to resist diseases and pests.

By cultivating the soil, we destroy the existing microclimate of the soil, which reduces its natural fertility, as well as accelerates the evaporation of moisture, which leads to erosion. Complete abandonment of treatment or its reduction retains moisture and organic matter in the soil, thus saving on irrigation and fertilizers.

By returning trees and shrubs to crop systems, where natural windbreaks reduce soil erosion, provide shade, reduce evaporation, accumulate nutrients, and create their own ecosystem. Yields in such places are sure to increase.

Trees and shrubs are natural absorbers of carbon, and if grazing can be done on the pasture where they grow, it may reduce greenhouse gas emissions, which will affect climate change. Cover crops add organic matter and increase the productivity of biological, chemical and physical components of the soil. This has been proven by studies of German and American scientists and with their recommendations has long been used in the practice of renewable agriculture in these countries. This is a very voluminous topic and we will definitely return to it in more detail. But the benefits of cover crops in general would like to be mentioned here. The most important thing, in my opinion, is the preservation and protection of human health and care for the environment: protection of water quality, prevention of soil erosion, preservation of soil moisture. One of the important advantages is to reduce the cost of fertilizers, reduce the need for herbicides and pesticides, reduce the cost of them, as well as increase yields by improving soil health. for fodder and / or use for grazing.

Studies in the world show that in traditional agriculture with traditional food production technologies, yields are higher than in restorative agriculture. Traditionally, it uses seed hybrids, fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides. But let’s not forget that the trace left in the production of these substances causes irreparable damage to our planet.

And yet, scientists from the American Center for Biotechnology Information in 2018 proved that regenerative farms are more profitable due to low production costs than in traditional agriculture. And this profit can be crucial for small farms that pay for seeds, fertilizers, remedies, using the services of banks. The transition to regenerative agriculture will not be easy, but it will help preserve family farms and make their lives more attractive to future generations of farmers.

Everyone wants to be healthy. Climate change concerns everyone. And we are able to understand and accept that food, healthy food grown on healthy soil, its use – this is also a way to heal our planet.

мучнистая роса

Powdery mildew

Powdery mildew – a common fungal disease that affects practically any tree species, as well as fruit, berry and vegetable crops. It appears as a white floury substance on the surface of leaves and young shoots. These are many tiny fungal spores that are carried through the air and infect new areas. Most often, the tree loses its beauty, the color and shape of the leaves change, they turn yellow, brown or red, and may fall off.

In the landscape, this is an aesthetically unpleasant, depressing picture. But the tree will most likely survive, having lost its decorativeness, but the harvest will be partially lost, and if it is a vegetable crop, the plant may die completely.

This disease is caused by various types of fungi, but most often Erysiphe cichoacearum. Some types of powdery mildew overwinter in dormant buds or young growths. Opening in the spring, these spores are carried by the wind to new plants, causing infection of new areas.

The degree of spread of infection depends on the health of the plants, their age, as well as weather conditions. Outbreaks of powdery mildew occur in places with poor air circulation, dense plantings, little sun and a lot of shade. When the wet season passes, the fungus also leaves, leaving behind infected areas and plants that have lost their beauty.

To control this fungus, you should try not to overload the landscape when planting, not to plant plants in strong shade, and not to make dense plantings. The sun and air must be enough for the normal life of plants. In the spring, it is necessary to thin out sanitary pruning of trees, freeing access of the sun to each leaf. At the very moment of the outbreak, it is undesirable to prune so as not to provoke infection of neighboring plants.

If powdery mildew appeared in the garden, it is necessary to reduce feeding so as not to stimulate the growth of new shoots, which will also be infected. Shoots that are already infected should be very carefully cut and not placed in the compost. When watering, avoid getting water on the leaves, reduce humidity in the area as much as possible.

Fungicides, which will help in the fight against the disease, must be applied according to the instructions for the drugs, protecting yourself from getting on the skin, eyes with special glasses, gloves, shoes and clothes, before sunrise, so as not to burn the plants.
We can help!

лечения каштанов

Today in Kyiv, the GreenClinic LifeScience Ukraine team tested the technology of treating chestnuts from the passing moth for the first time.

GreenClinic LifeScience Ukraine in partnership with Syngenta offers a new innovative and effective way to treat chestnuts, which protects trees from the passing chestnut moth.

Лікування каштанів

Today in Kyiv on Ivan Franko Street, the GreenClinic LifeScience Ukraine team vaccinated chestnut moth trees for the first time. The treatment is injected directly into the trunk of the tree using the exclusive “microinjection for trees” technology, which includes a series of small 10-mm holes drilled and hygienically sealed. This treatment does not pose any risk to the tree itself, the environment or the injection specialists.

The injection method has many advantages:
-long-term protection up to 3 years
– easily transferred by a tree
-does not affect people, workers or the environment
The “microinjection for trees” technology is the only such injection in Ukraine, entered in the register and allowed for use within settlements.

болеют сосны

Are pines sick? You here!

What do we expect when we invest in a plot of land located in a green area, including a forest? Silence, clean air, towering pines and the smell of pine needles, which can not be compared with anything. Living in a house in such a place will be not only prestigious, but also cozy and comfortable, and future owners do not hesitate to buy it, because they understand all the benefits.But they often face an unexpected problem – the dream forest on the site begins to hurt. Dmytro Radyuk, a specialist at the Green Clinic, knows why to do this and how to prevent it.

Bark beetle and more

“The most common cause of pine disease is the bark beetle. Fruit and ornamental trees are not so often affected by this pest, so it is an unexpected and unpleasant surprise for owners of areas with conifers.

Adverse conditions in which trees find themselves due to climate change and unstable weather conditions contribute to its emergence and spread. Adding to the difficulty is that not everyone recognizes the “handwriting” of bark beetles. This requires special knowledge and experience, “says Dmytro Radyuk.

According to him, last summer was very dry, so the trees, including pine, entered the winter with insufficient moisture. This, plus the negative factors that may be present in the areas (improper watering, the presence of lawn under trees, the construction process, etc.) cause additional stress and provoke the appearance of pests. According to statistics, after such conditions, the activity of pests is much higher because trees are more vulnerable.

In view of this, it is important in areas where this can be done, to support and stimulate rooting by applying fertilizers and pesticides, and to provide maximum protection to allow trees to survive adverse natural conditions without loss.

“Seasonal” jumps “in temperature in recent years have also played a role. Dry and hot summer, and then very cold and frosty winter. Before that, for several winters in a row, the average daily temperature was quite high, the winters were mild. This year’s frosts caused some stress to trees, including conifers. This is another factor that will reduce plant resistance to pests and diseases, – said the expert.

At the same time, he notes that when we talk about the protection of conifers from bark beetles, it is not just about treatment specifically against this pest. According to Dmytro Radyuk, each case is unique, because all sites are in different conditions. Other factors can also play a role: for example, a root sponge can destroy a tree faster than a bark beetle.

First – research, then treatment and protection.

The Green Clinic Private Phytopathology Consulting, a joint international expert project of GreenClinic LifeScience Global OÜ and the Green Clinic Research Center, provides comprehensive maintenance of forest areas, but the most popular service is the treatment of pines already affected by diseases and pests.

“Before starting treatment, we in any case conduct research to determine what factors may have influenced the disease, which could have provoked the inhibition of tree growth. After all, the result of treatment will not be long-lasting and effective if these negative factors are not eliminated or at least minimize their impact in the future.

Working in this field for more than 15 years, we can proudly say that we have saved more than a hundred hectares of forest and more than a thousand trees, “said the expert.
The company operates throughout Ukraine. Most orders come from Kyiv and the region, and the main customers are owners of suburban real estate, including in the woods. At one time, the owners of such houses paid a lot of money for a plot in the woods, so it is fundamentally important for them to preserve trees.

The best time to apply is the design phase.

By the way, most problems with trees arise from the barbaric treatment of them during construction. “A bulldozer comes in, rakes the needles, removes half of the root system… And then the owner says, ‘Why it dried up is unclear.’ Construction in such an area has its own characteristics and requires compliance with certain rules.

Therefore, we provide advice before the start of construction, so that the impact of interfering with wildlife was as destructive as possible. I can say that the most correct and timely moment to turn to landscaping specialists is the beginning of construction. It is quite possible to plan the construction, laying communications so as to minimize damage to the root system. The peculiarity of pine is that the adult tree is very poorly adapted to changing conditions. Even if the soil around it is replaced, it is already stressful – the tree begins to feed worse and becomes more vulnerable to diseases and pests.

Therefore, if the owner intends to preserve trees, the ideal time is to involve plant protection specialists before designing the house, and then take into account their recommendations: where to dig, and where better to bypass the root system, where part of it can be removed, and where it is undesirable. In my practice, there were cases when the house stood literally a meter from the pine. The chances of the pine surviving are small, but the risk that it will fall on the house when it starts to get sick and dry up is quite high, ”says Dmytro Radyuk.

For reference. Green Clinic is a company with many years of experience in diagnostics, rehabilitation, prevention, treatment and rehabilitation of plants. The company adheres to the ecosystem approach, which is to take into account the peculiarities of growth, geology, agroecology, microclimate and treats trees with treatment that causes minimal schooling to man and nature and stimulates plant self-renewal.
You can get a consultation and order the service by phone:



Spots on plants. Anthracnose of trees and more

Characteristic signs of the disease are dark spots of various shades on plants. Irregular rusty-brown spots of dead tissue develop on the veins of the leaves. Diseased plants can look like they have been burned in the sun.

Sunken ulcers, which contain fungal spores, develop on infected twigs, can also be on stems and fruits, spots on the leaf merge, the leaf changes color – it turns brown and then dries. Premature November begins. Fruits affected by anthracnose rot.

Anthracnose is a group of related fungal diseases of leaves and stems caused by ascomycete fungi that affect shade trees. For example: Apiognomonia errabunda (Roberge ex Desm.) Höhn. (1918) causes anthracnose in oak and various deciduous trees. Colletotrichum acutatum J.H. Simmonds (1968) causes anthracnose of strawberries.

Maple anthracnose is not the same disease as oak anthracnose, although the symptoms of these diseases can be very similar. Anthracnose diseases usually affect the veins of the leaves, causing the death of the vein and surrounding tissues.

The fight against anthracnose is carried out according to the same procedure for all shade trees.

Anthracnose is transmitted with infected plant residues, seeds, soil. Mushrooms overwinter on fallen leaves and branches that were infected last summer. Wet spring contributes to infection, it can occur on young leaves, vulnerable when there is a film of water on the leaf surface. More serious infection of the tree occurs in the lower third of the tree, where humidity is higher.

The disease does not lead to the death of the host tree, but can slow the growth of subsequent seasons and affect the decorative plant.

Tips for disease prevention:

  1. Ensure good air circulation in the crown of the tree by thinning and pruning overgrown shoots and new growth.
  2. Be sure to use clean garden tools when pruning. You can use alcohol or solution: bleach 1 part to 9 parts water. It is necessary to disinfect the tool by immersing it in the solution after each cut.
  3. Be sure to prune all dried branches.
  4. Infected fallen leaves must be collected and destroyed. Fallen twigs and leaves are a source of infection in the spring.
  5. It is important to restrain the annual growth, if you limit watering and provide moisture only in dry periods, and fertilize only in early spring or late autumn.
  6. Perhaps as a prevention of the disease, at the beginning of the growing season, when only the kidney begins to open, the use of fungicides two or three times with an interval of 7-10 days. The choice of fungicides is quite wide, but expert advice can help you choose the right tool and rate for spraying trees. It may be necessary to carry out preventive work with special equipment to perform quality treatment.

Using a prevention strategy, it is possible to improve your garden.

We can help!

Birds. Defenders of the forest

We are surrounded by sounds, and if the ear catches the nightingale’s song, the lark’s trill, the chirping of a sparrow or the voice of a cuckoo, involuntarily the eye seeks the source and listens. The sounds of the forest, the park, even in the city, in the garden and in the backyard, opening the door to a new day, it is impossible to imagine without birds. Remember the summer morning by the river or lake, the hot summer night at the cottage, even just stopping the car on the roadside and stepping aside a bit, remember these feelings … Listen … They always have the scents of fresh morning, dew, grass, smells and rustling, rustling ripening classes or leaves on a tree and always hearing or seeing birds. They are different, there are many species, and many in-depth scientific studies and educational articles for children have been written about their diversity.

I would like to emphasize the importance of balance in nature, which is a significant role for birds. Every bird faithfully guards the health of everything that grows, from flower beds at the entrance to the house, beds under your windows, garden, park, park, meadows on the edge of the forest, as well as large forests, inhibits and inhibits the reproduction of pests.

When creating new plantings, especially artificially, creating new landscapes, it is desirable to consider when planning a place for settlement and habitat of birds. These can be mixed coniferous-deciduous plantings with a shady second tier, soil-protective undergrowth of shrubs.

Shrubs protect the soil from drying out, and in moist soil well preserved fungi, bacteria and other microorganisms that have a positive effect on the resistance of these plants against pests and diseases. Sowing grass mixtures with the addition of spicy, ornamental, medicinal plants, their nectar will provide food for insects that destroy the eggs, larvae and pupae of pests.

It is also important to consider the possibility of storing hollow trees, this will allow birds to nest there.

A preventive measure against pests can be considered to limit the mowing of grass from spring to early July, the period of hatching chicks to preserve the local bird population.

Using tree seeds, nuts, acorns, shrubs, birds scatter them. This allows the forest to grow undergrowth, which will be inhabited by beneficial insects and birds, as well as retain moisture in the soil.

Ornithologists have noted in recent years the disorientation of birds, when some species began to stay for the winter with us and even nest. If possible, it is necessary to help birds cope with the cold season, especially when there is frost and snow. This is so obvious, let’s not forget about the feeders in the yards and parks during walks or work, treat the birds to bread crumbs, grains, seeds. The birds will be grateful to you.

як зберегти ліс підчас будівництва

How to save the forest during construction?

Forest conservation. Plots with their own forest or old beautiful trees are much more expensive. A person who chooses and buys them to build his house hopes to live among the trees for many years. When planning the development and improvement of such areas should be selected other than common design solutions for foundations, roads, communications and pedestrian infrastructure.

болеют сосны
пожелтение хвои у сосны

The existing norms of protection zones around trees during construction are greatly underestimated. The greatest difficulties are created: the courage to damage the axial roots during construction, ignorance and disregard for the characteristic spatial structure of root systems, or dogmatic errors of the form “pine always has a taproot.” It is necessary, in practice, to retreat further.

When planning construction works, it is necessary to prevent pressure on the soil of the equipment in the areas of surface occurrence of root systems, digging troughs under the tracks below the depth of roots, siltation of the rhizosphere with cement mortars. In practice, architects, civil engineers and landscape designers usually put a meter and a half, but two is also not enough.

In the area of mass construction, due to noise and traffic, there are fewer birds

and, accordingly, more pests, this is the cause of rapid degradation and loss of forest cover, along with the value of land.

It’s all easy to prevent, if done on time. This can also be corrected up to a certain point, again with timely treatment and examination. Applying late is definitely a problem for the whole industry. Such trees sometimes fall before they even have time to dry, and create a huge risk of injury to people on the site.

We can help!

Non-infectious diseases of trees and shrubs

Tree diseases (non-infectious) occur under the influence of adverse environmental factors, which include:

  • soil and climate (disturbances in the balance of nutrients, excess moisture, drought, frost, wind, snow);
  • anthropogenic (air and soil pollution by industrial and transport emissions, use of pesticides, high level of recreation, etc.).

The most common non-infectious diseases are: necrosis of leaves, browning of needles, frost-sunburn of the bark, frostbite, windfall, snow breaker.

Both infectious and non-infectious diseases have various external manifestations that occur as a reaction in response to damage.

мучнистая роса

These include changes in organs and tissues occurring during the disease, which are not typical for one or another type of plant:

  • deformation of organs;
  • the presence of deposits on their surface;
  • stains;
  • neoplasms on trunks and branches (ulcers, wounds, tumors);
  • rotting of fruits and wood;
  • color of needles;
  • sporulation and fruit bodies.

All the huge variety of diseases of various origins on woody plants is conditionally divided into groups with similar sets of symptoms.

The following diseases are most common:

Browning (rhizospheriosis) of Christmas tree needles

It is caused by fungi, bacteria, adverse environmental conditions. The needles acquire a brown, reddish-brown color, which can change over time. For the browning of needles of mushroom origin, the name “schütte” is adopted, which comes from the German word “schütten”, which translates as “to pour, to shower”. The main sign of shutte is the sporulation of pathogens on the needles.

Rust on rowan leaves

It is caused by fungi and is characterized by the formation on the affected organs (leaves, needles, shoots, trunks, etc.) of bright yellow, orange, dark brown small cushions that protrude from tears in the covering tissues.

Powdery mildew

Occurs under the influence of fungi. Symptoms: neoplasms on the affected organs of superficial white, initially cobweb-like, later compacted mealy plaques. Solidly covered leaves and young shoots look as if they are sprinkled with flour.

Cream spotting of linden on the leaves

It is caused by fungi, bacteria and adverse factors of the external environment and manifests itself in neoplasms on leaves, fruits and seeds of spots of various shapes, sizes, colors and structures. It is provoked by fungi and manifests itself in a neoplasm on the leaves.

Diplodine necrosis of willow

It most often occurs under the influence of fungi, less often – bacteria, is characterized by local (local) dying of the bark, often changing its color.

Appears in the process of vital activity of fungi and bacteria, is expressed by damage to the vascular conduction system of trees. It manifests itself in the darkening of blood vessels and relatively quick drying of the crown.

Transverse canker of oak

It is caused by fungi, bacteria and exposure to low temperatures, manifests itself in new formations on trunks and branches, less often – the roots of ulcers, wounds, tumors.

These are densely packed, numerous thin, shortened vertical shoots that are formed from dormant buds on a small section of the branch. They have the appearance of spherical or oval shaped bushes. The cause of the formation of “witches’ brooms” on woody plants is often fungi and viruses, in rarer cases – insects and various adverse environmental conditions, including air pollution.

Corrosive rot from the root fungus

It is mainly caused by fungi, characterized by softening and destruction of tissues of various plant organs. In trees and shrubs, large, fleshy, nutrient-rich seeds and fruits, as well as the wood of roots, trunks, and branches, are susceptible to rotting.

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шкідники хвойних рослин

Pests of conifers

Conifers, like all others, are susceptible to pests. You can deal with them by knowing what they look like and how they damage trees and shrubs.

Let’s consider the most common and dangerous pests of conifers.


Bark beetles can be called the most dangerous forest pests. Most parasites live and develop under the bark of coniferous trees, sometimes in the thickness of the bark or in the wood, drilling passages in them. Bark beetles are small, body length is from 0.8 to 12 mm, the color of pests, depending on the species, brown or black. At the end of the body is a flattened bevel, which is bordered by teeth.

By drilling the so-called uterine passage under the bark, females lay eggs. Hatched larvae, in turn, gnaw in different directions from him already their own, larval passages. At the end of the course, they make a camera – a “cradle”, in which they turn into a doll. Young beetles, hatched from pupae, gnaw through the flight holes, through which they come out.

Weakened, diseased, withering trees are mainly attacked. After infestation with pests, they die.

Хвойний павутинний кліщ

Spider mite

Spider mite is one of the most ubiquitous pests. It affects almost all plant species except aquatic. Not a specialist can spot ticks on larch, Christmas trees and junipers on the web. An experienced specialist will determine the presence of spider mites by the color of the leaf, as if it were watered with milk. Ticks are active in spring and summer, during which they can appear several times.

The size of individuals directly depends on their fatness, the length of females – 0.4-0.6 mm, males – 0.3-0.45 mm. Fleshy animals are characterized by an ellipsoidal shape, the upper part of the body is convex, the lower is flat. Mite larvae are transparent, light green to green-brown in color, there are 2 distinct, large dark spots on the sides. The color of wintering from late summer to spring females from orange to bright red. All adult ticks have 8 legs.

Nutrition of spider mites – this is the content of plant cells. The presence of the pest is evidenced by a thin web and the presence of small white dots on the needles. In case of severe damage, it is completely white, the whole plant is covered with cobwebs, the needles show a mobile mass consisting of the bodies of parasites.

The main prerequisite for the appearance of mites – low humidity, so a good prevention of the pest is regular spraying of the outer part of the plants.

Shields and false shields

You can meet thyme on juniper and Tuyahov, she began to appear on the yew. All shields have protective shields, they look like plaques on wood. In adult females, the shield is rounded, about 2 mm in diameter, in males it is smaller, oblong. The color of pests is reddish-brown or dark brown. The most dangerous females, because the larvae, leaving the eggs in a few hours settle on the entire surface of the plant and immediately begin to suck out all the juices, the needles are completely covered with shields. But the greatest damage is not caused by these parasites, and false shield bugs. Spruce pseudoshield is characterized by large size, it can reproduce quickly and en masse, causing serious damage to plants.

False shields differ from the shields in that the shield covering them from above does not grow together with the insect inside.

If you tear off the shield, the parasite will remain on the plant. Pests also differ in shields: in shields it is flat, in false shields it has the shape of a pea. Adults and larvae of both parasites function throughout the year, sucking all plant sap from plants.

The presence of thyroid glands can be recognized by the presence of brown or light rounded scales on the needles, which are difficult to separate from the plant. These are already adults. At strong defeat needles and trunks of trees and bushes are covered with a plaque which is formed because of big accumulation of parasites. The development and growth of damaged plants is delayed, the needles turn yellow and fall off.

At defeat of a false thyroid gland the needles lose shine, become brown and are covered with sticky allocations on which wasps gather. The parasite sucks the cell sap from the branches and needles. Red-brown or yellow spots appear on the damaged areas, leading to the death of parts of the tree.


Hermes – a special group of pests that affect pine and spruce. Parasites form on the branches of trees, like a cone – galls.
There are several types of these pests. In late June, active early, which forms small oval galls at the ends of branches. Yellow hermes is activated in August, it develops large green galls. The late species of pests forms large globular galls in late August-September. Hermes females feed on tree sap and lay eggs on them. Emerging larvae damage the kidneys by deforming them. Then in these places the Gauls develop.


Spruce trees are attacked by spruce:

  • Canadian;

As a rule, spruces do not suffer much from these parasites, next year their needles are restored. Sawmills cause more damage to pines, sometimes you can find whole nests of insects on the branches. Weymouth pine, cedar, mountain and common are most often attacked. The abdomen of the insect is connected to the chest motionless, without the help of a stalk. The ova of females looks like a saw with which they cut plant tissue and lay eggs inside. Externally, the larvae of the sawfly look like caterpillars.

They eat young shoots of conifers from May to the end of June, the branches then look scorched and die. It is easy to fight these pests. The main task is to see the caterpillars in time and take measures to destroy them.

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сосна пожовтіла

Yellow pine, what to do?

Pine, a genus of coniferous trees of the pine family. These are evergreen trees that can live 400-600 years. But what to do if your pine is not so green, and in some places you can see yellow needles?

Do not panic at once, thinking that the tree is disappearing or has already disappeared. Yellowing needles do not always indicate a problem.

Seasonal dumping of needles.

As deciduous plants drop leaves in autumn, so evergreen plants periodically drop their needles. Unlike deciduous trees, which drop all their leaves at once, pines, dropping old needles, retain most of the needles. Old needles turn yellow before falling off and the trees may seem sick.

Pine trees tend to shed needles in the fall, although they can shed them at other times of the year. The lifespan of needles is about 3-5 years, after which they are replaced. Most pine species retain their needles for several years before the old three-year-old needles fall.

Old yellow needles that drop pines, located closer to the inside of the tree. Because the young needle, which remains green, is on the outside of the tree, seasonal shedding of needles may go unnoticed in most species. However, white pine is an example of one species of pine that can lose a significant amount of needles in the fall.

Environmental factors that cause the fall of needles.

Pines are sensitive to wind damage. After a strong storm, the needles may turn yellow, and some trees eventually die. Some pines may remain green for a year before the needles turn yellow on the entire tree.
Pines can react to sharp fluctuations in temperature, especially in autumn, plant tissues can be injured, which eventually causes yellowing of the needles.

Road salt that gets on pines can burn plant tissues, causing yellowing of needles. Even air pollution can lead to pine disease.

Pine gets sick and turns yellow when transplanted.

The shock of transplanting can cause the needles to turn yellow, even if the tree is planted correctly. Improper planting techniques, such as planting a tree too deep or not enough water until the plant has taken root, can turn evergreen pines into yellow pines.

Planting pine trees in hot weather instead of autumn or winter can cause the needles to turn yellow first, and then completely turn brown.

Nutrient deficiency.

All plants need water and nutrients, but individual needs depend on plant species. A number of nutrient deficiencies can cause the leaves to turn yellow.

One example is nitrogen deficiency, which can cause needles to turn yellow. Pines and other plants should be fertilized according to the recommendations of soil tests to make sure that you meet their needs.

Pests and diseases, yellowing of needles.

If your evergreen plant turns yellow in the spring, the culprit may be several pests that feed on pine needles: mites. As their feeding progresses, symptoms include curvature and yellowing of the needles.

If the needles turn brown, you need to check the tree for the presence of bark beetles or bast eaters. Another pest of pine is the foliar nematode. Nematodes feed on plant tissue, which makes the needles yellow.

The cause of yellowing can be the following diseases: fusarium wilt, shingles, rust.

In any case, if you find yellowed needles, you should consult a specialist. Timely and correct treatment gives an effective result, and pines will delight with their greenery and aroma for many years to come.

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Bacterial dropsy of oak

Бактеріальна водянка дуба це системне, інфекційне, бактеріальне захворювання, збудником якого може бути Еnterobacter nimipressuralis або Enterobacter cloacae .

Вражає переважно зрілі дерева у віці старше 50 років, але останнім часом його виявили на молодших деревах діаметр яких 10 – 12 см.  Хімічно, рідина, що витікає з дерева – це насправді ферментований сік, який є спиртовим та токсичним для нових ділянок деревини. Саме ця рідина і містить значну кількість збудника, а також приваблює комах, що і є переносниками захворювання.


Захворювання характеризується тим, що дерева «кровоточать» або просочуються темною рідиною від невеликих уражень або розщеплень у їхній корі. Потік слизу викликається бактеріальною інфекцією як у внутрішніх ділянках деревини так і на зовнішніх ділянках дерева. Темна рідина просочується через вертикальні щілини між пластинами кори і стікає по стовбуру дерева. Рідина може то висихати, то знову витікати, в залежності від пори року.

Можна відчути кислий запах, що часто асоціюється з мокрим деревом, оскільки просочена водою деревина з великою кількістю відмерлих бактерій починає руйнуватися. Нагромадження бактеріальної популяції в дереві викликає бродіння, внаслідок чого збільшується  внутрішній тиск газу. Іноді в’яне листя і та можуть відмирати гілки. Але найчастіше рідина під тиском витікає з ран.

Багато разів вторинні гриби та бактерії заражають поверхневу рідину і створюють на корі слизьку текстуру.

У живій тканині під «кровотечами» утворюється ураження. Це ознака розпаду тканин. Деякі дерева гинуть через 4-6 років після появи симптомів.

Умови для розвитку бактеріальної водянки:

Бактеріальна водянка уражує ослаблені дерева, а симптоми розвиваються протягом 18 місяців.

Бактерії, що спричиняють водянку дуба, витримують низький вміст кисню і часто зустрічаються у ґрунтах та на поверхні рослин. Вони потрапляють через різні рани як надземної частини дерева, так і через коріння. Бактерії  найбільш активізуються у зрілих та старих тканинах рослини.

Лікування бактеріальної водянки дуба:

Ефективне лікування дубів від бактеріальної водянки дуже складне. Тому найкращий метод лікування, це профілактика  – підтримувати загальне здоров’я дерева, щоб дерево могло виокремити уражену частину деревини та виростити добру деревину навколо хворої ділянки.

Уникайте поранень дерева. Швидко обріжте зламані гілки, щоб туди не потрапила інфекція.

Пам’ятайте, що здорове дерево зазвичай долає  бактеріальну водянку. Якщо зберігати дерева здоровими, вони напевно переможуть хворобу.

При будь-яких ознаках бактеріальної водянки дуба та інших незрозумілих станів Ваших дерев необхідно одразу звернутись до спеціалістів. Наші фітопатологи зможуть вирішити проблему в боротьбі з бактеріальною водянкою, щоб вчасно та ефективно вилікувати Ваші дуби.

факти про березу

Interesting facts about birch

Birch– familiar to all tree. It is very noticeable against the background of other trees due to its white bark. Compared to coniferous birch groves always seem very light.Birch has long been considered the most important resource for humans, everything was in progress – bark, flowers, wood… It is difficult to overestimate the importance of this tree. But what makes birch interesting and valuable? Here are some interesting facts about this healing tree.

FACT 1: Birch is a pioneer among trees in new areas

Birch seeds are extremely light, 5,000 seeds weigh only 1 g. Its seeds are light gliders that fly long distances and fall to the ground kilometers from the mother trees. Birch love the sun. Cleared forest areas, open spaces after a fire and or former pastures are ideal areas for birch. As a pioneering tree species, it is one of the first tree species to colonize new areas. In insufficient sunlight, birch grows to a height of 30 meters.

Birch forms a new forest in open areas.

Other pioneer tree species are willow, alder or poplar. They all depend on a lot of light. They prepare the ground for future tree species, shading the soil and thus limiting other grasses and shrubs in their growth. The result is a semi-shady forest with low shrubs and layers of grass, in which other tree species grow, such as maple, beech, oak and others.


Snow-white crust as protection from the sun

Birch is ideally suited to sunny places. White bark – its protection from the sun. It reflects light and ensures that the wood does not overheat. Thus, birch prevents the formation of cracks. The birch bark is water-repellent.


Birch sap

Birch is one of the species of trees that “bleed”. The term is conditional because the trees do not actually bleed. The comparison is based on the fact that in the spring, when their bark is damaged, a lot of water flows out of the trees. In addition to birch, this phenomenon can be observed in walnut, maple, and vine.

Trees produce especially strong sap in the spring, just before planting.

This is due to the fact that trees are increasingly draining water from the ground to the branches in the crown. Without leaves, however, little liquid evaporates and the tree is heavily filled with water and dissolved nutrients.

Freshly picked juice tastes a little sweet and lively.

Birch sap is considered a healthy spring drink and is popular as a hair tonic.

FACT 4: Birch and mushrooms

Birch forms a symbiosis with many species of fungi. These include, for example, boletus, black chestnut, pink wool.

Mushrooms live together with trees and support each other. The tree supplies the sugar solutions formed during photosynthesis to the fungus, which provides the tree with soil nutrients such as nitrogen. Due to their huge network in the soil, fungi release much more nutrients from the soil than a tree can get through its roots.

FACT 5: Postcards made of birch bark

Birch bark is one of the oldest predecessors of today’s paper. Thin layers of bark that are easy to remove, light, resistant to tears and water-repellent. Carved messages withstood the weather and were therefore especially popular.

During the First World War, soldiers at the front again resorted to bark. Due to the lack of postcards, they wrote on pieces of bark and sent them to their relatives. Today, birch bark can be purchased for special art projects.

FACT 6: Birch with a name

The name of the singer Bjork Güdmündsdouttir from the Icelandic language translates as “birch”.

Her name is the month in Ukrainian (March) and Czech (Czech: Březen).

Birch is widely used in landscaping and it, like all plants can get sick. Therefore, at the first signs of the disease, incomprehensible condition of the tree, it is necessary to turn to specialists in time.

смешанный лес

Дрібні шкідники, але великі проблеми. Короїди

Жуки-короїди – природна частина життєвого циклу хвойних лісів. Масштаби та інтенсивність нашестя короїду за останні два десятиліття – збільшуються, в основному, тому що підвищення температури сприяє збереженню зимових личинок жуків.  Комахи не тільки поширюються на нові території, але і раніше вилуплюються і частіше розмножуються. Зазвичай зараження триває протягом декількох років, поки жуки не вбивають уражене ними дерево. Нові дерева короїди заселяють з дивовижною швидкістю, і велика кількість жуків перевищує все, що експерти бачили раніше.

Жуки не атакують молоді дерева, поки вони не досягнуть діаметра близько 8 см. Але сьогодні мінливий клімат робить дерева більш вразливими до вторгнення жуків одночасно.

Хвойні ліси переживали атаки короїдів протягом тисячоліть, але завдяки ефективному механізму захисту дерев. Коли жуки зариваються в кору, дерева випускають смолу, в якій і тонуть короїди не маючи змоги послати феромонові сигнали, що збирають інших жуків. Але все більш тривалі та сильні посухи останніх років послаблювали захисні сили дерев. Без достатньої води дерева не можуть виробляти достатню кількість смоли. Високі температури викликають подальші втрати вологи. Дерева слабшають і шкідники їх швидко заселяють.

Насіння хвойних порід є ключовим джерелом їжі для численних видів птахів і тварин. Що призводить до зменшення біорізноманіття.

Потрібно періодично проводити огляд своїх дерев на предмет виявлення короїду.

Ознаками зараження є: хвоя стає блідою, потім червоною і коричневою, невеликі круглі отвори в корі, наявність тирси біля стовбурів, наявність опалих гілочок під сосною. В разі виявлення таких ознак необхідно одразу звертатись до спеціалістів. Вчасно розпочате лікування допоможе зберегти дерева здоровими на довгий час.

Опале листя – загрібати чи не загрібати? 7 застосувань опалого листя.

Опале листя – загрібати чи не загрібати? 7 застосувань опалого листя.

1.Листя – ідеальний вуглецевий інгредієнт для вашої компостної купи. Якщо розкласти зібране опале листя між іншим осіннім сміттям, можна отримати чудовий компост. Щоб прискорити розкладання листя подрібніть їх спочатку, але це не обов’язково.  А наступної весни можна використовувати утворений компост.

2.Листкова цвіль може не здаватися гарною ідеєю, але вона робить чудодійні речі для вашого садового ґрунту. Листкова цвіль – це розсипчастий, компостоподібний продукт, який залишається, коли листя залишають розкладатися самостійно. Саме це робить запах лісу таким земляним.

Листкова цвіль покращує структуру ґрунту, значно покращуючи її водоутримуючу здатність. Він також приваблює корисні організми, які так важливі для здорового ґрунту.

Мульча. З листя роблять відмінну, мульчу, яка пригнічує бур’яни та врешті-решт розкладаючись живить ґрунт. Але спочатку листя бажано подрібнити. Товстий шар вологих листків може утворити міцний килимок і заблокувати проникнення води та повітря в ґрунт.

3. Листя можна використовувати для утеплення ніжних рослин. Для цього можна зробити огорожу з дроту та присипати рослину листям. Навесні необхідно розібрати цю огорожу, а листя скласти до компостної купи.

4. Також листя можна використовувати навіть для холодного зберігання овочів. Якщо у вас є льох або підвал для зберігання, ви можете замість тирси чи газет використовувати сухе листя для перекладання овочів. Вони легко протримаються всю зиму.

5. Залишити листя на газоні. Запустіть газонокосарку над ними та дайте їм залишитися на газоні й підживити траву. Подрібнене листя досить швидко розійдеться між травою і вона зможе дихати. 

6. Всі ми знаємо, наскільки красиві осінні листя, коли вони на деревах, але вони не втрачають цієї краси лише тому, що опадають. Зберіть трохи і висушіть, щоб прикрасити свій будинок осінньою темою: букети, вінки, гірлянди, композиції та ін.

7. Листя – це чудова, безкоштовна альтернатива мішків з гноєм. Необхідно просто переконатися, що воно добре контактує з ґрунтом, а тоді нехай природа творить чудеса.

Листя почне розпадатися і забезпечить чудове середовище проживання для дощових черв’яків та інших корисних організмів, які мешкають у вашому садовому ґрунті