болезни деревьев

Tree diseases caused by fungi

Peptic ulcer of the tree.

The person who chooses a tree in the Garden Center has a task – to grow a fast-growing healthy tree that can fight the penetration of pathogenic microorganisms into the bark with a good program of tree care.

Caring for a tree is to help avoid the tree of stress. Fungi and bacteria are always around and naturally living on the surface of the bark. They look for opportunities to penetrate natural and artificial wounds and usually have a chance if the tree is under stress.

Stress factors are:

Wrong landing.
Mechanical injuries (including damage to roots during excavation, as well as lawn mowers, cars, animals).
Pruning in the formation of the crown, wounds.
Too dense soil.
Nutrition of a tree is its imbalance.
The sun is summer or winter (burns).
Air temperature – extremely high or low.
Strong wind, hail, downpour.
Drought or flood.
Root rot and insects.

Хвороби дерев

Peptic ulcer is caused by many fungi.

With a good tree care program, it is possible to use the right pruning methods. Take care not to overfeed. Do not allow pests and diseases to inhabit the tree. It is necessary not to make wounds where there are already active ulcers that spread controversy. It is important that your tree has plenty of water. Protect him from mechanical injuries. For planting a tree, choose healthy planting material. Stimulate the growth of the tree, preparing it in moderation. Fight weeds for several years after planting. In the dry summer, use drip irrigation, and do not forget about drainage in places where it is needed.

Damage (ulcers) can be controlled at an early stage by using the correct pruning method. Remember, if an ulcer begins to form on the trunk, the tree may begin to separate from the damage, sealing the wood cells around the ulcer. Systemic fungicides should also be used to control the disease.

Beautiful and healthy landscapes for you.

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Autumn top dressing of coniferous plants

Conifers are evergreen plants, they desperately need feeding, especially in the autumn period.


Autumn is the best time to provide plants with reserves of nutrients and trace elements. It is in autumn that plants accumulate the necessary substances that provide resistance to low temperatures and give strength to young growth formed this year. Taking into account the fact that conifers practically do not stop growing in the winter period, but only slow down, it is in the autumn that it is necessary to take care of the proper development and health of the root system, so that it can meet the needs of the plant in the periods of thaws and early spring.

It is best to use fertilizers containing magnesium, potassium and phosphorus in the fall, preferably in a form available for consumption by plants. The most desirable is the use of macro and microelement complex fertilizers. In order not to harm the plants and correctly calculate the dose and concentration of fertilizers according to the type of plants and local soil conditions, it is necessary to contact specialists.

Need advice or help?

 

пожелтение хвои у сосны

Yellowing of pine needles

Did your evergreen plant start to turn yellow in the spring? The usual time of seasonal fall of needles is autumn and this is a natural process. Therefore, you need to pay attention to who or what is the cause of yellowing – it may be symptoms of pests or cultural problems. Several pests are known to feed on pine needles.

For some species, such as white pine and Scots pine, yellowing of older needles is a natural phenomenon. Usually pine holds needles for only one or two years. When in summer and autumn, the fall of the needle occurs over a long period of time, and it becomes more noticeable – this is a cause for concern.

Other conifers, such as the Fraser Fir, the Concolor Fir, the Douglas Fir, and others, hold their needles for five or more years, so in late September or October, internal needles rarely fall off. This may be a natural process of loss of the oldest internal needles, but it can also be a symptom caused by several pests or other factors. Usually, the main culprits are either spider mite damage, needle diseases, nutrient deficiencies or tree stress symptoms, such as heat (prolonged high temperatures) or drought (long periods of lack of soil moisture).


Here are some things to look for to help you diagnose what’s going on in your area.

Mite damage:

The needles will show the characteristic “dotted”. When mites feed, they release the cell from the green chlorophyll. This results in yellowish spots along the needles.

Diseases of the needle:

Diseases caused by Rhizosphaera or Stigminia / Mycosphaerella on spruce and Swiss needle on fir. Using a hand lens, we see black fruiting bodies protruding from the stomata of infected needles. On a healthy needle the stomata are white.

Lack of nutrients:

Symptoms of nutrient deficiency can be anything from pale green to chlorosis of the needle (yellowing) of the needle tips and the whole needle. Look for other signs of defects and samples of damage throughout the site.

Stress – thermal or water:

The fall of leaves or needles is a common reaction of a tree to heat or drought. Needles can dry out during long dry or hot periods in late August and September, turn yellowish-brown, but remain on the trees until autumn, and then come off and fall during processing.

Maybe it’s a spider mite or a needle fungus, you need to develop a plan to control these pests next year.

In case of other possible stress, evaluate the area, and this fall take a sample of soil or leaves to determine if you need to adjust the fertilizer program.

Another pest of pine – leaf nematode, also called pine wilting nematode. Nematodes feed on plant tissues, causing the needles to turn yellow.

The pine nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus kills conifers, especially pines, many species. Scots pine is most often affected by the host. The nematode is transmitted by sawfly beetles, bark beetles, through their nutrient wounds into the resin channels. Here the nematode multiplies and impedes the movement of water through aquatic tissues, eventually causing the plant to wither.

Symptoms and diagnosis:

Early symptoms of pine wilting are often invisible or insignificant, alternating with rapid disappearance. The first visible symptoms usually include pale green and / or slight yellowing of the extremities. It can be obvious on one or more branches or can develop on all at once. In addition, within 48 hours after infection, there will be a visible loss of resin fluidity, which is observed on the cut branch. Trees often die so quickly that brown needles continue to cling to the branches. Sick pines usually die in early summer or early autumn, some species need 2 seasons.

Confirmation of the disease is carried out by detecting the pathogenic nematode under a microscope in the study of infected wood samples from the main trunk or affected branches.

Life cycle:

Once the host plant has been infected with the pine nematode through the nutrition of the bark beetle, the nematode will feed and reproduce in the resin channels. When deciduous symptoms appear, a population of 1000 nematodes per gram of wood may occur. When stressors such as high temperatures, drought, or other pathogens increase, nematode populations increase. After the death of the host plant, the nematode turns into a latent form, and at this stage the larvae of the bark beetle, which feeds on the tree, can connect. This dispersed stage of the nematode migrates to the pupae of the bark beetle, then enters the bodies of newly formed adults of the bark beetle, which will look for other tree hosts, and repeat the life cycle of nematodes.

Pest control strategies:

– Do not leave an infected tree on the site. It is important to interrupt the life cycle of nematodes. Infected wood should be burned, can not be used as mulch to prevent the reproduction and overwintering of bark beetles in infected wood, and periods of high temperatures in summer contribute to epidemics, as well as periods of severe drought.

– Choose evergreen trees that are more resistant to pine nematodes. For example, blue, Norwegian and Serbian spruce, as well as oriental white pine. Avoid more susceptible species such as Scots pine, Austrian pine, Japanese black pine, red pine and long-leaved pine.

– Maintain the health of trees. Even a healthy tree can be infected with a pine forest nematode, and stressed trees are more attractive for bark beetle feeding. Arrange watering during long periods of drought.

– Periodically feed the trees in moderation.

– During the construction period it is important to prevent damage to the root system of trees.

– When driving on the site, protect the hole for the root system and trunks – all this reduces the likelihood of infection with butterflies and transmission of nematodes.

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підготовка дерев до зими

Autumn in the garden … What moments in preparing the garden for winter are most relevant today

I suggest you go into the garden and look carefully, approach the deciduous trees. Now, before the leaves have fallen, it is easy to see where there are problems. Broken branches from gusts of wind, dried branches from moniliosis and other diseases, how much the leaf is damaged by pests or diseases. Analyzing these signs, you can make a decision whether it is possible to leave the fallen leaf in the garden, or if it is infected and damaged, it is necessary to take it out of the garden? Dry branches in the autumn garden are still clearly visible against the background of leaves, you can start sanitary pruning. During pruning, it is desirable to make smooth, clean cuts without notches in dry weather, at plus air temperature, before the onset of persistent frosts.

After the leaves have fallen, the trunks of deciduous trees must be inspected and cleaned of the old bark,moss and lichens, can be mechanically brushed, can be treated with a solution of iron sulfate. Insecticides are used against pests, fungicides are used against spores of fungal diseases. Consult with a specialist, which will be effective in your case.

Autumn feeding for plants should not include nitrogen or fresh manure. Feed fruit trees after harvesting, berry trees and decorative plants – in late September, early October. The main components of top dressing are potassium, phosphorus and trace elements. After feeding, abundant watering is recommended, even if it is raining. Under the crowns, the soil is not sufficiently moistened during rain.

To protect the roots from freezing, it is useful to sprinkle the circles near the trunk with peat,

humus or compost. Young fruit trees and newly planted decorative, coniferous plants need warming of the trunk circles. When persistent sub-zero temperatures occur, it is advisable to cover the stem circles with any agrofibre or spruce branches.

In order to prevent the breaking of bushes and conifers from wet snow, it is advisable to tie them up for the winter. If possible, it is necessary to shake off wet snow from the branches of tall trees to avoid breaking branches and loss of decorativeness.

Plants that are not frost-resistant enough in our region must be covered with agrofiber when persistent frosts of minus 10 degrees occur. In the spring, it is necessary to remove the insulation in cloudy weather to avoid sunburn.

We can help!

послуги фітопатолога

Phytopathologist and his role in plant life

Communication on phytopathology – what is it?

Conscious systemic regularity or extreme necessity?

It is no secret that all of us, or most of us, to a greater or lesser extent, are engaged in self-medication.

We go to the doctor when it is very bad.

We go to the vet – only when we realize that we can not cope with the illness of a shaggy friend. Sometimes we are late with help.

With trees in a different way – they are silent. You need to be very careful to notice that there are problems in the garden.

And again we try to help the sick tree ourselves. And only then, having tried ways to get rid of the disease or damage to the tree, using the advice of acquaintances, friends or neighbors, in extreme cases, seek professional help – go to a phytopathologist.

Sometimes it’s too late. There are diseases of trees, when only the decorative plants suffer, but there are cases, outbreaks, when you can not delay, so as not to lose adult trees.

But there is a way when on time – this is a specially designed scheme of care, protection against pests and disease prevention just for your garden. A professional phytopathologist can help with this.

Beautiful healthy gardens for you!

уход за самшитом

Boxwood – planting, growing, care

Much has been said lately about boxwood pests and diseases. I would like to dwell on the planting, cultivation and care of boxwood.

Boxwood is a wonderful ornamental evergreen deciduous plant that inspires with its compositions, which traditionally use this plant along with roses, lavender, and its clipped forms against the bright spots of flowering perennials. How sad it is to see when boxwood problems begin and many years of its formation are in vain. In many parts of this spring there was a change in leaf color, boxwood was yellowish, brown; often collapsed and broken under the weight of snow bushes had a very unattractive appearance. Fungal infections have also been added, which change the leaf blade and damage the sprouts themselves.

The release of boxwood from the winter of this year was difficult. From the unstable temperature in winter, when there were frosts and thaws, piercing wind, weathered and frosty leaves and shoots of this beautiful plant. It also snowed, covered abundantly with a thick thick blanket, and at some points melted, creating an icy crust that prevents plants from breathing. Add to all this bright sunny, often windy days. All these are reasons that negatively affected the health of boxwood, and as a consequence, the appearance. In the next cold season, we need to minimize the impact of these factors. Let’s start caring now!

If we talk about laying a new garden, we know that boxwood grows well in the sun and shade. Let’s find him a place where he will be comfortable to grow and he will delight you with his bright greenery for many years. Boxwood needs drained neutral or slightly alkaline soils. Acidic, soaking, clay are not suitable for this plant, it will be difficult to absorb the necessary nutrients. Boxwood should not be planted during the off-season due to drying and freezing winds.

About the timing of planting boxwood. Based on experience, I can confidently say that this plant grows well, though on watering. There are examples when boxwood was planted in the heat, taken from a nursery with an open root system. The main thing is not to burn in the sun and give enough moisture at the time of growth of the root system. And winter planting, as long as the frozen ground does not allow, can also take place, the main thing is to insulate the roots, throwing on top of the soil agrofiber.

About the bushes themselves. We are accustomed to the beauty of boxwood in the dense formation of the plant, but fungal diseases in recent years make adjustments to this principle. It is desirable to make the crown of the bush a little more lush, so that sunlight and air get inside. This can help prevent fungal diseases. Avoid watering from above, it is desirable to lay a drip tape. In preparation for winter, it is possible to tie the bushes to prevent collapse and breakage during snowfall. And watch the temperature, at the expected minus 15-18 degrees Celsius, find an opportunity to cover the boxwood with agrofiber, a possible framework for its support. With the onset of stable heat with the opening do not delay, remove the agrofiber in quiet cloudy weather.

Pay attention to boxwood! It may take several seasons for him to regain his health and fitness after winter injuries.

We can help!

Послуги знищення комарів

Mosquitoes and man

болезни деревьев

Mosquitoes are widespread all over the world.

The most widely represented common mosquito (Culex pipiens), which lives wherever its main victim – a person – lives.

Adult female mosquitoes are found in summer in residential and recreational areas, including vegetation around parks, overgrown areas and fields, in wet and damp places, in residential buildings on walls, windows, and in animal enclosures, in shaded areas.

A mosquito lives from egg laying to adulthood from 15 to 60 days, depending on the ambient temperature. The female mosquito lays 30-150, sometimes up to 280 eggs every 2-3 days. Larvae are usually born within 48 hours, but in some mosquito species the eggs survive the winter.

The larva goes through three molts, and after the fourth it becomes a pupa. The development time of larvae and pupae depends on the temperature. Mosquitoes usually become adults after 7-15 days, but sometimes their development takes more than a month. Mosquitoes almost always need blood to reproduce eggs, so the egg-laying cycle depends on blood consumption.

Females usually live 2-3 weeks,

but there are cases up to 114-119 days, it depends on the air temperature and the availability of food. Males live much less.

During a warm period of time, 3-4 generations of mosquitoes grow in middle latitudes. Mosquitoes hibernate in the imago phase (fertilized females), the larvae hibernate in more or less warm places: in livestock premises, warm basements, caves, tree hollows, burrows, residential apartments, other buildings where they are not very active, and if the temperature below zero, then in numbness.

Mosquitoes are carriers of dangerous diseases.

Also, their bites can cause itching and an allergic reaction, which is indicated in medical records as a reaction to an insect bite. The female injects saliva containing anticoagulants that prevent blood clotting into the skin of her victim before she begins to drink the blood. And mosquito saliva causes itching, swelling, redness at the site of the bite, and in some cases a severe allergic reaction. Infections carried by mosquitoes are also transmitted with saliva.

The easiest and best way to avoid reaction problems is to avoid mosquito bites.

How to prevent mosquito breeding and mosquito bites:

  • Near the house, you need to remove thick vegetation where morning and evening dew accumulates (mow)
  • It is necessary to thin out vegetation, make tunnels for air movement, eliminate its stagnation.
  • Remove areas of standing water around your home, including swimming pools that are not maintained.
  • In the evening and morning, when mosquitoes are most active, try not to spend time outside.
  • When mosquitoes are active at home or when you go outside to an area with a lot of mosquitoes, you can use repellents to minimize the impact of bites
  • Repellents: When you are outside, use insect repellent. Follow the instructions on the package.
  • Make sure doors and windows are tightly closed.
  • Provide a place to sleep, for this use a mosquito net when sleeping outside.

Caring for babies:

Put a mosquito net on the stroller during the walk.

Wear protective clothing, pants and long-sleeved shirts when outdoors, and spray repellent on clothing and exposed skin. Light-colored clothing can help you see mosquitoes landing on you.

And when, having taken all precautionary measures, you, having left the house, still hear the shrill squeal of a female mosquito, remember one more WAY to avoid bites:

Conduct a mosquito control operation in your home area!

Effective control of the adult mosquito population by SPRAYING! on exterior surfaces and the area depends on a number of external factors, including timing, level of contamination, methodology used during application, and weather conditions.

The products are certified and approved for ground and aerial use in outdoor residential and recreational areas and other similar areas to control adult populations of mosquitoes that can transmit disease.

This level of health impact is much less than constant contact with the application and spraying of mosquito repellents on the skin, clothing, in rooms with steaming fumigators.

Killing adult mosquitoes helps control the size of mosquito populations and prevent the spread of disease. Mosquito populations are constantly dying off and recovering, and such an operation will not eliminate all adult mosquitoes.

Ensure your restful sleep, admire sunrises and sunsets, enjoy summer evenings in the circle of family and friends in the open air with a cup of fragrant tea without the annoying squealing of mosquitoes. Everything is in your hands!

                                                                                              We can help!

Регенеративное сельское хозяйство

Regenerative agriculture – what is it?

Regenerative agriculture is, in other words, regenerative agriculture, where farmers rely on natural soil fertility to produce food, a return to traditional practices that include farming practices used several generations ago but armed with high-tech innovative solutions that combine natural soil productivity based on the study of the microbiome and the ability to influence fertility, soil health, arable and cover technologies of crops, afforestation.

The main task of restorative agriculture is to obtain healthy plant products due to the natural fertility of the soil, thereby reducing the carbon footprint that affects climate change by applying natural fertilizers that can be applied on site or other material that can decompose on site, or , when this plant material is digested and remains after grazing animals.

Regenerative agriculture helps fight climate change, because when carbon is grown or returned to the soil through crop rotation, cover crops, zero tillage practices, it increases the organic matter content of the soil, plants grow with a stronger root system, become stronger and healthier , having the ability to resist diseases and pests.

By cultivating the soil, we destroy the existing microclimate of the soil, which reduces its natural fertility, as well as accelerates the evaporation of moisture, which leads to erosion. Complete abandonment of treatment or its reduction retains moisture and organic matter in the soil, thus saving on irrigation and fertilizers.

By returning trees and shrubs to crop systems, where natural windbreaks reduce soil erosion, provide shade, reduce evaporation, accumulate nutrients, and create their own ecosystem. Yields in such places are sure to increase.

Trees and shrubs are natural absorbers of carbon, and if grazing can be done on the pasture where they grow, it may reduce greenhouse gas emissions, which will affect climate change. Cover crops add organic matter and increase the productivity of biological, chemical and physical components of the soil. This has been proven by studies of German and American scientists and with their recommendations has long been used in the practice of renewable agriculture in these countries. This is a very voluminous topic and we will definitely return to it in more detail. But the benefits of cover crops in general would like to be mentioned here. The most important thing, in my opinion, is the preservation and protection of human health and care for the environment: protection of water quality, prevention of soil erosion, preservation of soil moisture. One of the important advantages is to reduce the cost of fertilizers, reduce the need for herbicides and pesticides, reduce the cost of them, as well as increase yields by improving soil health. for fodder and / or use for grazing.

Studies in the world show that in traditional agriculture with traditional food production technologies, yields are higher than in restorative agriculture. Traditionally, it uses seed hybrids, fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides. But let’s not forget that the trace left in the production of these substances causes irreparable damage to our planet.

And yet, scientists from the American Center for Biotechnology Information in 2018 proved that regenerative farms are more profitable due to low production costs than in traditional agriculture. And this profit can be crucial for small farms that pay for seeds, fertilizers, remedies, using the services of banks. The transition to regenerative agriculture will not be easy, but it will help preserve family farms and make their lives more attractive to future generations of farmers.

Everyone wants to be healthy. Climate change concerns everyone. And we are able to understand and accept that food, healthy food grown on healthy soil, its use – this is also a way to heal our planet.

мучнистая роса

Powdery mildew

Powdery mildew – a common fungal disease that affects practically any tree species, as well as fruit, berry and vegetable crops. It appears as a white floury substance on the surface of leaves and young shoots. These are many tiny fungal spores that are carried through the air and infect new areas. Most often, the tree loses its beauty, the color and shape of the leaves change, they turn yellow, brown or red, and may fall off.

In the landscape, this is an aesthetically unpleasant, depressing picture. But the tree will most likely survive, having lost its decorativeness, but the harvest will be partially lost, and if it is a vegetable crop, the plant may die completely.

This disease is caused by various types of fungi, but most often Erysiphe cichoacearum. Some types of powdery mildew overwinter in dormant buds or young growths. Opening in the spring, these spores are carried by the wind to new plants, causing infection of new areas.

The degree of spread of infection depends on the health of the plants, their age, as well as weather conditions. Outbreaks of powdery mildew occur in places with poor air circulation, dense plantings, little sun and a lot of shade. When the wet season passes, the fungus also leaves, leaving behind infected areas and plants that have lost their beauty.

To control this fungus, you should try not to overload the landscape when planting, not to plant plants in strong shade, and not to make dense plantings. The sun and air must be enough for the normal life of plants. In the spring, it is necessary to thin out sanitary pruning of trees, freeing access of the sun to each leaf. At the very moment of the outbreak, it is undesirable to prune so as not to provoke infection of neighboring plants.

If powdery mildew appeared in the garden, it is necessary to reduce feeding so as not to stimulate the growth of new shoots, which will also be infected. Shoots that are already infected should be very carefully cut and not placed in the compost. When watering, avoid getting water on the leaves, reduce humidity in the area as much as possible.

Fungicides, which will help in the fight against the disease, must be applied according to the instructions for the drugs, protecting yourself from getting on the skin, eyes with special glasses, gloves, shoes and clothes, before sunrise, so as not to burn the plants.
We can help!

лечения каштанов

Today in Kyiv, the GreenClinic LifeScience Ukraine team tested the technology of treating chestnuts from the passing moth for the first time.

GreenClinic LifeScience Ukraine in partnership with Syngenta offers a new innovative and effective way to treat chestnuts, which protects trees from the passing chestnut moth.

каштаны
Лікування каштанів

Today in Kyiv on Ivan Franko Street, the GreenClinic LifeScience Ukraine team vaccinated chestnut moth trees for the first time. The treatment is injected directly into the trunk of the tree using the exclusive “microinjection for trees” technology, which includes a series of small 10-mm holes drilled and hygienically sealed. This treatment does not pose any risk to the tree itself, the environment or the injection specialists.

The injection method has many advantages:
-long-term protection up to 3 years
– easily transferred by a tree
-does not affect people, workers or the environment
The “microinjection for trees” technology is the only such injection in Ukraine, entered in the register and allowed for use within settlements.

болеют сосны

Are pines sick? You here!

What do we expect when we invest in a plot of land located in a green area, including a forest? Silence, clean air, towering pines and the smell of pine needles, which can not be compared with anything. Living in a house in such a place will be not only prestigious, but also cozy and comfortable, and future owners do not hesitate to buy it, because they understand all the benefits.But they often face an unexpected problem – the dream forest on the site begins to hurt. Dmytro Radyuk, a specialist at the Green Clinic, knows why to do this and how to prevent it.

Bark beetle and more

“The most common cause of pine disease is the bark beetle. Fruit and ornamental trees are not so often affected by this pest, so it is an unexpected and unpleasant surprise for owners of areas with conifers.

Adverse conditions in which trees find themselves due to climate change and unstable weather conditions contribute to its emergence and spread. Adding to the difficulty is that not everyone recognizes the “handwriting” of bark beetles. This requires special knowledge and experience, “says Dmytro Radyuk.

According to him, last summer was very dry, so the trees, including pine, entered the winter with insufficient moisture. This, plus the negative factors that may be present in the areas (improper watering, the presence of lawn under trees, the construction process, etc.) cause additional stress and provoke the appearance of pests. According to statistics, after such conditions, the activity of pests is much higher because trees are more vulnerable.

In view of this, it is important in areas where this can be done, to support and stimulate rooting by applying fertilizers and pesticides, and to provide maximum protection to allow trees to survive adverse natural conditions without loss.

“Seasonal” jumps “in temperature in recent years have also played a role. Dry and hot summer, and then very cold and frosty winter. Before that, for several winters in a row, the average daily temperature was quite high, the winters were mild. This year’s frosts caused some stress to trees, including conifers. This is another factor that will reduce plant resistance to pests and diseases, – said the expert.

At the same time, he notes that when we talk about the protection of conifers from bark beetles, it is not just about treatment specifically against this pest. According to Dmytro Radyuk, each case is unique, because all sites are in different conditions. Other factors can also play a role: for example, a root sponge can destroy a tree faster than a bark beetle.

First – research, then treatment and protection.

The Green Clinic Private Phytopathology Consulting, a joint international expert project of GreenClinic LifeScience Global OÜ and the Green Clinic Research Center, provides comprehensive maintenance of forest areas, but the most popular service is the treatment of pines already affected by diseases and pests.

“Before starting treatment, we in any case conduct research to determine what factors may have influenced the disease, which could have provoked the inhibition of tree growth. After all, the result of treatment will not be long-lasting and effective if these negative factors are not eliminated or at least minimize their impact in the future.

Working in this field for more than 15 years, we can proudly say that we have saved more than a hundred hectares of forest and more than a thousand trees, “said the expert.
The company operates throughout Ukraine. Most orders come from Kyiv and the region, and the main customers are owners of suburban real estate, including in the woods. At one time, the owners of such houses paid a lot of money for a plot in the woods, so it is fundamentally important for them to preserve trees.

The best time to apply is the design phase.

By the way, most problems with trees arise from the barbaric treatment of them during construction. “A bulldozer comes in, rakes the needles, removes half of the root system… And then the owner says, ‘Why it dried up is unclear.’ Construction in such an area has its own characteristics and requires compliance with certain rules.

Therefore, we provide advice before the start of construction, so that the impact of interfering with wildlife was as destructive as possible. I can say that the most correct and timely moment to turn to landscaping specialists is the beginning of construction. It is quite possible to plan the construction, laying communications so as to minimize damage to the root system. The peculiarity of pine is that the adult tree is very poorly adapted to changing conditions. Even if the soil around it is replaced, it is already stressful – the tree begins to feed worse and becomes more vulnerable to diseases and pests.

Therefore, if the owner intends to preserve trees, the ideal time is to involve plant protection specialists before designing the house, and then take into account their recommendations: where to dig, and where better to bypass the root system, where part of it can be removed, and where it is undesirable. In my practice, there were cases when the house stood literally a meter from the pine. The chances of the pine surviving are small, but the risk that it will fall on the house when it starts to get sick and dry up is quite high, ”says Dmytro Radyuk.

For reference. Green Clinic is a company with many years of experience in diagnostics, rehabilitation, prevention, treatment and rehabilitation of plants. The company adheres to the ecosystem approach, which is to take into account the peculiarities of growth, geology, agroecology, microclimate and treats trees with treatment that causes minimal schooling to man and nature and stimulates plant self-renewal.
You can get a consultation and order the service by phone:

 

 

Why do thuja turn yellow and brown?

Pine, a genus of coniferous trees of the pine family. These are evergreen trees that can live 400-600 years. But what to do if your pine is not so green, and in some places you can see yellow needles?

Do not panic at once, thinking that the tree is disappearing or has already disappeared. Yellowing needles do not always indicate a problem.

Seasonal dumping of needles.

As deciduous plants drop leaves in autumn, so evergreen plants periodically drop their needles. Unlike deciduous trees, which drop all their leaves at once, pines, dropping old needles, retain most of the needles. Old needles turn yellow before falling off and the trees may seem sick.
Pine trees tend to shed needles in the fall, although they can shed them at other times of the year. The lifespan of needles is about 3-5 years, after which they are replaced. Most pine species retain their needles for several years before the old three-year-old needles fall.

Old yellow needles that drop pines, located closer to the inside of the tree. Because the young needle, which remains green, is on the outside of the tree, seasonal shedding of needles may go unnoticed in most species. However, white pine is an example of one species of pine that can lose a significant amount of needles in the fall.

Environmental factors that cause the fall of needles.

Pines are sensitive to wind damage. After a strong storm, the needles may turn yellow, and some trees eventually die. Some pines may remain green for a year before the needles turn yellow on the entire tree.
Pines can react to sharp fluctuations in temperature, especially in autumn, plant tissues can be injured, which eventually causes yellowing of the needles.

Road salt that gets on pines can burn plant tissues, causing yellowing of needles. Even air pollution can lead to pine disease.

Pine gets sick and turns yellow when transplanted.

The shock of transplanting can cause the needles to turn yellow, even if the tree is planted correctly. Improper planting techniques, such as planting a tree too deep or not enough water until the plant has taken root, can turn evergreen pines into yellow pines.

Planting pine trees in hot weather instead of autumn or winter can cause the needles to turn yellow first, and then completely turn brown.

Nutrient deficiency.

All plants need water and nutrients, but individual needs depend on plant species. A number of nutrient deficiencies can cause the leaves to turn yellow.

One example is nitrogen deficiency, which can cause needles to turn yellow. Pines and other plants should be fertilized according to the recommendations of soil tests to make sure that you meet their needs.

Pests and diseases, yellowing of needles

If your evergreen plant turns yellow in the spring, the culprit may be several pests that feed on pine needles: mites. As their feeding progresses, symptoms include curvature and yellowing of the needles.

If the needles turn brown, you need to check the tree for the presence of bark beetles or bast eaters. Another pest of pine is the foliar nematode. Nematodes feed on plant tissue, which makes the needles yellow.

The cause of yellowing can be the following diseases: fusarium wilt, shingles, rust.

In any case, if you find yellowed needles should consult a specialist. Timely and correct treatment gives an effective result, and pines will delight with their greenery and aroma for many years to come.

Spots on plants. Anthracnose of trees and more

Characteristic signs of the disease are dark spots of various shades on plants. Irregular rusty-brown spots of dead tissue develop on the veins of the leaves. Diseased plants can look like they have been burned in the sun.

Sunken ulcers, which contain fungal spores, develop on infected twigs, can also be on stems and fruits, spots on the leaf merge, the leaf changes color – it turns brown and then dries. Premature November begins. Fruits affected by anthracnose rot.

Anthracnose is a group of related fungal diseases of leaves and stems caused by ascomycete fungi that affect shade trees. For example: Apiognomonia errabunda (Roberge ex Desm.) Höhn. (1918) causes anthracnose in oak and various deciduous trees. Colletotrichum acutatum J.H. Simmonds (1968) causes anthracnose of strawberries.

Maple anthracnose is not the same disease as oak anthracnose, although the symptoms of these diseases can be very similar. Anthracnose diseases usually affect the veins of the leaves, causing the death of the vein and surrounding tissues.

The fight against anthracnose is carried out according to the same procedure for all shade trees.

Anthracnose is transmitted with infected plant residues, seeds, soil. Mushrooms overwinter on fallen leaves and branches that were infected last summer. Wet spring contributes to infection, it can occur on young leaves, vulnerable when there is a film of water on the leaf surface. More serious infection of the tree occurs in the lower third of the tree, where humidity is higher.

The disease does not lead to the death of the host tree, but can slow the growth of subsequent seasons and affect the decorative plant.

Tips for disease prevention:

  1. Ensure good air circulation in the crown of the tree by thinning and pruning overgrown shoots and new growth.
  2. Be sure to use clean garden tools when pruning. You can use alcohol or solution: bleach 1 part to 9 parts water. It is necessary to disinfect the tool by immersing it in the solution after each cut.
  3. Be sure to prune all dried branches.
  4. Infected fallen leaves must be collected and destroyed. Fallen twigs and leaves are a source of infection in the spring.
  5. It is important to restrain the annual growth, if you limit watering and provide moisture only in dry periods, and fertilize only in early spring or late autumn.
  6. Perhaps as a prevention of the disease, at the beginning of the growing season, when only the kidney begins to open, the use of fungicides two or three times with an interval of 7-10 days. The choice of fungicides is quite wide, but expert advice can help you choose the right tool and rate for spraying trees. It may be necessary to carry out preventive work with special equipment to perform quality treatment.

Using a prevention strategy, it is possible to improve your garden.

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Birds. Defenders of the forest

We are surrounded by sounds, and if the ear catches the nightingale’s song, the lark’s trill, the chirping of a sparrow or the voice of a cuckoo, involuntarily the eye seeks the source and listens. The sounds of the forest, the park, even in the city, in the garden and in the backyard, opening the door to a new day, it is impossible to imagine without birds. Remember the summer morning by the river or lake, the hot summer night at the cottage, even just stopping the car on the roadside and stepping aside a bit, remember these feelings … Listen … They always have the scents of fresh morning, dew, grass, smells and rustling, rustling ripening classes or leaves on a tree and always hearing or seeing birds. They are different, there are many species, and many in-depth scientific studies and educational articles for children have been written about their diversity.

I would like to emphasize the importance of balance in nature, which is a significant role for birds. Every bird faithfully guards the health of everything that grows, from flower beds at the entrance to the house, beds under your windows, garden, park, park, meadows on the edge of the forest, as well as large forests, inhibits and inhibits the reproduction of pests.

When creating new plantings, especially artificially, creating new landscapes, it is desirable to consider when planning a place for settlement and habitat of birds. These can be mixed coniferous-deciduous plantings with a shady second tier, soil-protective undergrowth of shrubs.

Shrubs protect the soil from drying out, and in moist soil well preserved fungi, bacteria and other microorganisms that have a positive effect on the resistance of these plants against pests and diseases. Sowing grass mixtures with the addition of spicy, ornamental, medicinal plants, their nectar will provide food for insects that destroy the eggs, larvae and pupae of pests.

It is also important to consider the possibility of storing hollow trees, this will allow birds to nest there.

A preventive measure against pests can be considered to limit the mowing of grass from spring to early July, the period of hatching chicks to preserve the local bird population.

Using tree seeds, nuts, acorns, shrubs, birds scatter them. This allows the forest to grow undergrowth, which will be inhabited by beneficial insects and birds, as well as retain moisture in the soil.

Ornithologists have noted in recent years the disorientation of birds, when some species began to stay for the winter with us and even nest. If possible, it is necessary to help birds cope with the cold season, especially when there is frost and snow. This is so obvious, let’s not forget about the feeders in the yards and parks during walks or work, treat the birds to bread crumbs, grains, seeds. The birds will be grateful to you.

як зберегти ліс підчас будівництва

How to save the forest during construction?

Forest conservation. Plots with their own forest or old beautiful trees are much more expensive. A person who chooses and buys them to build his house hopes to live among the trees for many years. When planning the development and improvement of such areas should be selected other than common design solutions for foundations, roads, communications and pedestrian infrastructure.

болеют сосны
пожелтение хвои у сосны

The existing norms of protection zones around trees during construction are greatly underestimated. The greatest difficulties are created: the courage to damage the axial roots during construction, ignorance and disregard for the characteristic spatial structure of root systems, or dogmatic errors of the form “pine always has a taproot.” It is necessary, in practice, to retreat further.

When planning construction works, it is necessary to prevent pressure on the soil of the equipment in the areas of surface occurrence of root systems, digging troughs under the tracks below the depth of roots, siltation of the rhizosphere with cement mortars. In practice, architects, civil engineers and landscape designers usually put a meter and a half, but two is also not enough.

In the area of mass construction, due to noise and traffic, there are fewer birds

and, accordingly, more pests, this is the cause of rapid degradation and loss of forest cover, along with the value of land.

It’s all easy to prevent, if done on time. This can also be corrected up to a certain point, again with timely treatment and examination. Applying late is definitely a problem for the whole industry. Such trees sometimes fall before they even have time to dry, and create a huge risk of injury to people on the site.

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філодія

Philodia of sunflowers

In 2020, a number of numerous cases of basket anomalies of sunflower were recorded in Ukraine, which due to the degeneration of tubular flowers into leaf blades in the middle of the basket are unable to form functional generative organs, leading to partial or complete sterility of plants. This developmental anomaly has been known to phytopathologists for half a century (Meyer, 1966) and is called “phyllody”. It has been found not only on sunflower (Bidari et al., 1987), but also on other plants, such as sesame (Cagirgan et al., 2013), roses (Yan et al., 2016), tomatoes, rapeseed and corn, and in nature, in particular, on plantain, cornflowers, hops and other species.

External signs: typical morphological aberrations, accompanied by chlorosis, drying of the leaf edge, which can be mistaken for calcium or boron deficiency.

Infectious and stress etiology: Common biological agents that cause the development of philodium are representatives of intracellular bacteria of the genus Phytoplasma (“Candidatus Phytoplasma”), so named by analogy with mycoplasmas for lack of cell walls, variable shape, small cell size and <1 μ genome. Phytoplasmas are not capable of free existence in the environment without host plants, because they are obligate parasites. Vectors that carry phytoplasmas are various species of insects (including cicadas or leafhoppers), which mechanically damage the outer coverings of plants and feed on phloem sap (Akulov, 2020). Phytoplasmas can affect more than 500 species of cultivated and wild plants, causing a number of other symptoms in addition to philodias, including dwarf leaves, broom cancellations, and vortexing (abnormal green pigmentation of parts of the plant that usually have pigments of other colors). In addition to phytoplasmas, phylodia can be caused by viruses, smut fungi, rust and oomycetes, so in each case to determine the treatment strategy requires targeted diagnosis of the pathogen.

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Spontaneous formation of leaf blades instead of flowers can also occur due to the complex action of environmental factors, which leads to impaired expression of genes responsible for flower formation (eg, whorl and RcPISTILLATA) (Yan et al. 2016), as well as phytohormone imbalance. An interesting fact is that such developmental disorders may have some decorative significance, as, for example, in the tea rose Rosa chinensis cv. Viridiflora, which is considered a spontaneous mutant (Yan et al. 2016). Adverse climatic conditions (prolonged drought, sharp fluctuations in day and night temperatures), mineral nutrition disorders (excess nitrogen, boron deficiency, etc.), oversaturation of the soil with fertilizers or herbicides can affect plants at certain stages of development critical to flower formation and lead to abnormal phenotype.

Diagnosis: macroscopic examination; microscopy of ultrathin sections of the phloem with signs of phytoplasma damage; and molecular genetic analysis to detect phytoplasmas, in particular using Multiplex Real-Time qPCR Assay, Loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) in both affected plants and vector insects (Ikten et al., 2016) . Before choosing a treatment strategy, it is necessary to identify the pathogen and determine its nature: viral, bacterial, fungal and others, and determine the extent of exposure to abiotic stressors.

Treatment: Currently, phytopathologists and environmental scientists are working to develop effective approaches to the treatment of phyllodes of microbiological origin, as well as to study the species of insects that are carriers of phytoplasma. Tested methods are conducting the affected material through aseptic culture of plants to obtain clones of virus-free planting material, treatment with tetracycline antibiotics (the method is dangerous for the environment and due to the risk of tetracycline-resistant strains of mycoplasmas).

Prevention: 1) control of biotic factors (use of tested seed and genetically resistant varieties of cultivated plants; targeted search for philodiums by agronomists; timely destruction of weeds in fields, their edges and separate strips; tracking fluctuations in the population of vector insects; fields with sunflowers of plants that can be affected by philodias (for example, roses, clover, asters or strawberries), or regular removal of flowers with an abnormal phenotype).

2) control of abiotic factors (sufficient irrigation regime; selection of minimum effective concentrations of mineral fertilizers and herbicides that would not exceed acceptable norms and would not affect plant health; timely crop rotations and other approaches to optimize growing conditions for cultivated plants).

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List of primary sources:

  1. Akulov O. 2020. Expert opinion: philodias on sunflower baskets. https://superagronom.com/blog/724-oleksandr-akulov-filodiyi-na-koshikah-sonyashnika
  2. Bidari, V.B., Sangappa, H.K. and Mahalinga, D.M., 1987. Phyllody—a new menace to the sunflower leading to sterility. Current Science, 56(18), pp.954-956. https://www.jstor.org/stable/24091368?seq=1
  3. Cagirgan, M.I., Mbaye, N., Silme, R.S., Ouedraogo, N. and Topuz, H., 2013. The impact of climate variability on occurrence of sesame phyllody and symptomatology of the disease in a Mediterranean environment. Turkish Journal of Field Crops, 18(1), pp.101-108. http://www.field-crops.org/assets/pdf/product51d3c5b42aeb6.pdf
  4. Ikten, C., Ustun, R., Catal, M., Yol, E. and Uzun, B., 2016. Multiplex real-time qPCR assay for simultaneous and sensitive detection of phytoplasmas in sesame plants and insect vectors. PloS one, 11(5), https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0155891
  5. Meyer, V. G. (1966). Flower abnormality. Bot. Rev. 32, 165–195. doi: 10.1007/BF02858659
  6. Yan, H., Zhang, H., Wang, Q., Jian, H., Qiu, X., Baudino, S., Just, J., Raymond, O., Gu, L., Wang, J. and Bendahmane, M., 2016. The Rosa chinensis cv. Viridiflora phyllody phenotype is associated with misexpression of flower organ identity genes. Frontiers in plant science, 7, p.996. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpls.2016.00996/full

Non-infectious diseases of trees and shrubs

Tree diseases (non-infectious) occur under the influence of adverse environmental factors, which include:

  • soil and climate (disturbances in the balance of nutrients, excess moisture, drought, frost, wind, snow);
  • anthropogenic (air and soil pollution by industrial and transport emissions, use of pesticides, high level of recreation, etc.).

The most common non-infectious diseases are: necrosis of leaves, browning of needles, frost-sunburn of the bark, frostbite, windfall, snow breaker.

Both infectious and non-infectious diseases have various external manifestations that occur as a reaction in response to damage.

мучнистая роса

These include changes in organs and tissues occurring during the disease, which are not typical for one or another type of plant:

  • deformation of organs;
  • the presence of deposits on their surface;
  • stains;
  • neoplasms on trunks and branches (ulcers, wounds, tumors);
  • rotting of fruits and wood;
  • color of needles;
  • sporulation and fruit bodies.

All the huge variety of diseases of various origins on woody plants is conditionally divided into groups with similar sets of symptoms.

The following diseases are most common:

Browning (rhizospheriosis) of Christmas tree needles

It is caused by fungi, bacteria, adverse environmental conditions. The needles acquire a brown, reddish-brown color, which can change over time. For the browning of needles of mushroom origin, the name “schütte” is adopted, which comes from the German word “schütten”, which translates as “to pour, to shower”. The main sign of shutte is the sporulation of pathogens on the needles.

Rust on rowan leaves

It is caused by fungi and is characterized by the formation on the affected organs (leaves, needles, shoots, trunks, etc.) of bright yellow, orange, dark brown small cushions that protrude from tears in the covering tissues.

Powdery mildew

Occurs under the influence of fungi. Symptoms: neoplasms on the affected organs of superficial white, initially cobweb-like, later compacted mealy plaques. Solidly covered leaves and young shoots look as if they are sprinkled with flour.

Cream spotting of linden on the leaves

It is caused by fungi, bacteria and adverse factors of the external environment and manifests itself in neoplasms on leaves, fruits and seeds of spots of various shapes, sizes, colors and structures. It is provoked by fungi and manifests itself in a neoplasm on the leaves.

Diplodine necrosis of willow

It most often occurs under the influence of fungi, less often – bacteria, is characterized by local (local) dying of the bark, often changing its color.

Appears in the process of vital activity of fungi and bacteria, is expressed by damage to the vascular conduction system of trees. It manifests itself in the darkening of blood vessels and relatively quick drying of the crown.

Transverse canker of oak

It is caused by fungi, bacteria and exposure to low temperatures, manifests itself in new formations on trunks and branches, less often – the roots of ulcers, wounds, tumors.

These are densely packed, numerous thin, shortened vertical shoots that are formed from dormant buds on a small section of the branch. They have the appearance of spherical or oval shaped bushes. The cause of the formation of “witches’ brooms” on woody plants is often fungi and viruses, in rarer cases – insects and various adverse environmental conditions, including air pollution.

Corrosive rot from the root fungus

It is mainly caused by fungi, characterized by softening and destruction of tissues of various plant organs. In trees and shrubs, large, fleshy, nutrient-rich seeds and fruits, as well as the wood of roots, trunks, and branches, are susceptible to rotting.

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стрес у дерев

Що викликає стрес у дерев?

Це поширена помилка, що комахи і хвороби є основними причинами “смерті” дерев. Навколишнє середовище людини насправді викликає більшість стресів, які відчувають дерева. Насправді, навіть зараження може в багатьох випадках бути пов’язано з діяльністю людини.

Неправильна посадка дерев є однією з основних причин їх загибелі в міському середовищі. До додаткових факторів, що викликають стрес у дерев, відносяться, зокрема:

-надмірний полив,

-недостатній полив,

-ущільнення грунту,

-вплив дорожньої солі ,

-забруднення навколишнього середовища,

-будівництво поблизу коріння.

Часто саме поєднання кількох факторів стресу призводить до руйнування дерев.

 

Симптоми стресу: що шукати?

Найкраще, що ви можете зробити для своїх дерев, це запобігти стресові фактори, забезпечуючи правильну посадку, полив і обрізку.

Також важливо регулярно перевіряти їх на наявність ознак, що свідчать про те, що вони потребують допомоги. Ось деякі з класичних ознак того, що Ваше дерево перебуває у стресовому стані:

 

Тріщини або розщеплення

Тріщини в стовбурі дерева, особливо великі, можуть вказувати на розкладання. Дрібні тріщини заживуть самі по собі, але сильні тріщини зазвичай означають, що дереву вже пізно, і його, можливо, доведеться видалити.

 

Спільні стовбури

Дерево, яке має два стволи, які сходяться у видимій V-образній формі, швидше за все, знаходилося в стані стресу. Для запобігання цієї проблеми ви можете проконсультуватися з нашими фахівцями.

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Нахил дерева

Деякі дерева поступово нахиляються з часом, і це не привід для занепокоєння. Раптовий нахил – проблематичний і може вказувати на те, що дерево має потребу у видаленні.

 

Втрата листя

Якщо дерево втрачає листя в невідповідний час року (тобто влітку або занадто рано восени), це означає, що дерево намагається впоратися зі стресом, зберігаючи ресурси. Раннє падіння листя зазвичай викликано екстремальною спекою, занадто великим або занадто малою кількістю води або хворобами.

 

Раннє пожовтіння листя на дереві

Точно так же, якщо ви бачите, що листя на дереві жовтіють, а на вулиці ще літо, ваші дерева відчувають стрес. Зазвичай причина в нестачі поживних речовин, проблеми з шкідниками і ущільнення грунту.

В’янення листя

Зазвичай це відбувається на знову пересаджених деревах і вказує на шок від пересадки. У більшості випадків це можна виправити, якщо дати їм відповідну кількість води і застосувати мульчу.

 

Опік листя

Якщо листя виглядають коричневими і хрусткими в літню спеку, то, швидше за все, це пов’язано з опіком листя. Правильний полив і догляд протягом всього року можуть допомогти запобігти цьому.

 

Плямисті листя

Деревне грибок є звичайним стресовим чинником для дерев під час сезону дощів, і він зазвичай проявляється в коричневих або плямистих листі. Деревне гриб зазвичай вимагає лікування – проконсультуйтеся з нашими фахівцями і отримаєте план лікування.

 

Гриби біля основи дерева

Гриби, що ростуть біля основи стовбура дерева, зазвичай є ознакою розпаду, так як гриби зазвичай ростуть на мертвій або гнилій деревині.

 

Якщо Ви помітили будь-які з цих ознак на своєму дереві, зв’яжіться з нашими фахівцями. Чим раніше ви помітите і усунете проблему, тим швидше ваше дерево зможе відновитися. 

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ялина канадська

Diseases of the Canadian spruce

Canadian spruce, like all plants, due to lack of attention in the care or attack of pathogens, can get sick. If a red plaque appears on the branches and the needles fall off, it may be tracheomycosis, it affects the roots of young trees. The disease is incurable and dangerous for surrounding plants. The only method is to burn the tree together with the root, and treat the place where it grew with a fungicide.

Needle rust is a fungal disease. Signs of the disease are clear, easily visible: on the bark of shoots appear small 0.5 cm orange growths (spores). After a while the needles turn yellow and fall off. In the fight against rust will help spraying copper-containing drugs. Processing is carried out several times a month. It is not recommended to plant next to conifers grain fruit crops: apple, pear, because they are an “incubator” of rust spores.

No less dangerous fungal disease – shutte. Arises from stagnant moisture in tight and overgrown with weeds plantings. Manifested in early autumn by drying, yellowing of needles with barely visible brown spots. The following spring, the needles turn black, covered with plaque and fall off, becoming a source of infection. Heated needles must be removed, cut diseased branches burned, treated several times with fungicides.

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Canadian spruce often suffers from root rot caused by stagnant moisture on poorly aerated soils. The plant by the middle of summer acquires a depressed appearance, poorly growing growths. The tree is dug up, the damaged softened roots are pruned, and it is transplanted to a new, more favorable place.

Canadian spruce can be affected by aphids, aphids, false aphids, mealybugs, spider mites and other pests. They are difficult to notice because they are very small, but cause great damage by sucking the juice from the bark, needles or roots.

When infested with aphids, yellowing of needles is observed, and the tree becomes depressed.

Trees that grow in the shade and on dry soils suffer the most from thyroid glands. Therefore, it is necessary to adjust the care.

If the tree is attacked by a pseudoshield, you can see honeydew on the shoots, as well as black plaque.

Spider mite is one of the most dangerous pests. The branches are covered with cobwebs, the needles turn yellow or brown, and the needles themselves fall off.

Parasite control involves mechanical and chemical methods. Preventive, this is a spring treatment with insecticides -a fairly effective tool.

Canadian spruce can be affected by diseases and pests, as well as other plants. However, it is a very decorative tree, both in summer and winter, which can decorate any garden. And at the first signs of damage you can always turn to specialists.

Need advice or help?

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Coniferous spider mite – a small pest beetle that belongs to the species of tetranic mites

Coniferous spider mite: characteristic features of the pest.

Coniferous spider mite is a microscopic (about 0.45 mm long) insect, with an elliptical or ovoid body and a convex upper and flat lower body. Its color varies from light brown to brick red. Head with a blunt, short proboscis on which the organs of nutrition are located. The mite has 8 legs with a large number of hairy appendages, with which it attaches to the plant.

Females lay fertilized and unfertilized, round, white, transparent or yellowish eggs at the same time. From which young females and males are born (and the latter hatch exclusively from unfertilized eggs).

Their ripening time primarily depends on the average daily air temperature. The higher it is, the faster transparent, greenish-brown larvae appear with 3 pairs of legs and large, dark spots on the sides. Thus, the development of the embryo occurs in 2-15 days.

After the first moult (3-15 days after birth), the larva of the mite becomes a nymph and it grows another pair of legs. Under favorable conditions, in a few days the nymph becomes an adult, mature insect, quite ready for reproduction.

ялина канадська

Coniferous spider mite: what is dangerous?

However, the main danger posed by coniferous spider mite is its fertility and speed of development. Under favorable conditions, it completely completes its life cycle. From egg to egg in just 7-10 days. Which can be considered a kind of record among pests. Thus, in a season only a dozen insects can turn into a colony of many thousands, which literally occupies several dozen trees.

Coniferous spider mite: signs of appearance.

Coniferous spider mite is very small. It is simply impossible to see it with the naked eye. However, its appearance on the plant still will not go unnoticed. In the course of its life, this insect creates a whole mantle on a tree or shrub with a dense, white web. This cover complicates the normal air exchange of the plant, as well as complicates photosynthesis, which adversely affects the condition of the needles.

Also signs of spider mite are:

  • whitish spots on the needles, in places where insects feed;
  • discoloration, drying and death of needles;
  • reddish, mottled plaque on branches and needles, which is formed in places of accumulation of the pest.

Coniferous spider mite: where it lives and what it eats.

Coniferous spider mite is a very common parasite. It is often found on wild and ornamental trees and shrubs in the temperate and subtropical climate of the Northern Hemisphere. And the further south the plant grows, the more chances to meet this pest.

The spider mite feeds on the juices of conifers such as thuja, pine, fir, spruce and juniper.

Coniferous spider mite: methods of control.

Due to the very short life cycle, the spider mite can capture just huge areas of conifers. Therefore, it is necessary to fight it at the first signs of its appearance. For this purpose it is necessary to carry out careful processing of a plant by an acaricidal preparation (“Aktellik”, “Vermitek”). At the same time it is necessary to remember:

  • the drug acts only in contact with the insect. Therefore, spraying should be carried out with a fine spray and in any case not to leave untreated areas;
  • change the drug regularly, as after 2-3 treatments insects develop immunity to it;
  • carry out several sprays per season at intervals of 7 days. To destroy not only adult insects but also their eggs and larvae.

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шкідники хвойних рослин

Pests of conifers

Conifers, like all others, are susceptible to pests. You can deal with them by knowing what they look like and how they damage trees and shrubs.

Let’s consider the most common and dangerous pests of conifers.

Bark

Bark beetles can be called the most dangerous forest pests. Most parasites live and develop under the bark of coniferous trees, sometimes in the thickness of the bark or in the wood, drilling passages in them. Bark beetles are small, body length is from 0.8 to 12 mm, the color of pests, depending on the species, brown or black. At the end of the body is a flattened bevel, which is bordered by teeth.

By drilling the so-called uterine passage under the bark, females lay eggs. Hatched larvae, in turn, gnaw in different directions from him already their own, larval passages. At the end of the course, they make a camera – a “cradle”, in which they turn into a doll. Young beetles, hatched from pupae, gnaw through the flight holes, through which they come out.

Weakened, diseased, withering trees are mainly attacked. After infestation with pests, they die.

Хвойний павутинний кліщ

Spider mite

Spider mite is one of the most ubiquitous pests. It affects almost all plant species except aquatic. Not a specialist can spot ticks on larch, Christmas trees and junipers on the web. An experienced specialist will determine the presence of spider mites by the color of the leaf, as if it were watered with milk. Ticks are active in spring and summer, during which they can appear several times.

The size of individuals directly depends on their fatness, the length of females – 0.4-0.6 mm, males – 0.3-0.45 mm. Fleshy animals are characterized by an ellipsoidal shape, the upper part of the body is convex, the lower is flat. Mite larvae are transparent, light green to green-brown in color, there are 2 distinct, large dark spots on the sides. The color of wintering from late summer to spring females from orange to bright red. All adult ticks have 8 legs.

Nutrition of spider mites – this is the content of plant cells. The presence of the pest is evidenced by a thin web and the presence of small white dots on the needles. In case of severe damage, it is completely white, the whole plant is covered with cobwebs, the needles show a mobile mass consisting of the bodies of parasites.

The main prerequisite for the appearance of mites – low humidity, so a good prevention of the pest is regular spraying of the outer part of the plants.

Shields and false shields

You can meet thyme on juniper and Tuyahov, she began to appear on the yew. All shields have protective shields, they look like plaques on wood. In adult females, the shield is rounded, about 2 mm in diameter, in males it is smaller, oblong. The color of pests is reddish-brown or dark brown. The most dangerous females, because the larvae, leaving the eggs in a few hours settle on the entire surface of the plant and immediately begin to suck out all the juices, the needles are completely covered with shields. But the greatest damage is not caused by these parasites, and false shield bugs. Spruce pseudoshield is characterized by large size, it can reproduce quickly and en masse, causing serious damage to plants.

False shields differ from the shields in that the shield covering them from above does not grow together with the insect inside.

If you tear off the shield, the parasite will remain on the plant. Pests also differ in shields: in shields it is flat, in false shields it has the shape of a pea. Adults and larvae of both parasites function throughout the year, sucking all plant sap from plants.

The presence of thyroid glands can be recognized by the presence of brown or light rounded scales on the needles, which are difficult to separate from the plant. These are already adults. At strong defeat needles and trunks of trees and bushes are covered with a plaque which is formed because of big accumulation of parasites. The development and growth of damaged plants is delayed, the needles turn yellow and fall off.

At defeat of a false thyroid gland the needles lose shine, become brown and are covered with sticky allocations on which wasps gather. The parasite sucks the cell sap from the branches and needles. Red-brown or yellow spots appear on the damaged areas, leading to the death of parts of the tree.

Hermes

Hermes – a special group of pests that affect pine and spruce. Parasites form on the branches of trees, like a cone – galls.
There are several types of these pests. In late June, active early, which forms small oval galls at the ends of branches. Yellow hermes is activated in August, it develops large green galls. The late species of pests forms large globular galls in late August-September. Hermes females feed on tree sap and lay eggs on them. Emerging larvae damage the kidneys by deforming them. Then in these places the Gauls develop.

Sawyer

Spruce trees are attacked by spruce:

  • Canadian;
    Serbian;
    European.

As a rule, spruces do not suffer much from these parasites, next year their needles are restored. Sawmills cause more damage to pines, sometimes you can find whole nests of insects on the branches. Weymouth pine, cedar, mountain and common are most often attacked. The abdomen of the insect is connected to the chest motionless, without the help of a stalk. The ova of females looks like a saw with which they cut plant tissue and lay eggs inside. Externally, the larvae of the sawfly look like caterpillars.

They eat young shoots of conifers from May to the end of June, the branches then look scorched and die. It is easy to fight these pests. The main task is to see the caterpillars in time and take measures to destroy them.

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стовбурова гниль

Stem birch rot

Birch is a deciduous tree that is widely used in landscaping. It is unpretentious, well withstands heat and cold. But weakened birches can be affected and stem rot occurs.

White marble rot of the trunk (Photo: George Chernilevsky) is caused by the fungus Fomes fomentarius – a true coppice.
One of the most common truffles. Cosmopolitan. The fungus infects weakened trees, and the fruiting body is formed on a dying tree.

Infection with the fungus occurs unnoticed. Fungal spores penetrate through the damaged bark, where they begin to develop. Initially, the leaves turn silver, which is caused by poisoning by toxins released by the fungus in the course of its life. Then on a birch trunk, in places of bark defeat it is possible to see red caps of mushrooms. If these hats are visible in several places, it will be difficult to save the tree.

If marble rot has affected a young tree, its lifespan is greatly reduced. Under adverse conditions, the affected young birch dies in 3-4 years.

In addition to birch, the truffle fungus affects oak, beech, alder, aspen, willow, ash and linden trees.

 

Brown cracked trunk rot (Photo: George Chernilevsky) is caused by the fungus Fomitopsis pinicola – bordered codling moth. Bordered coppice grows on felled trees, stumps of most deciduous trees, including birch and conifers. Weakened living trees can also be affected. Fruiting bodies on living trees usually grow in the lower part of the tree.

The fungus infects growing trees by penetrating them through broken knots and various wounds that have been caused by mechanical damage. Due to the fungus, wood rot begins at the periphery, then quickly spreads to the core. The initial stage of decay is characterized by the appearance of pink and reddish-brown color. Then longitudinal or oval white stripes with brown lines are formed in the wood. The cracks are filled with white mycelium, the wood acquires a strong fungal odor. The entire surface around the fruiting body is covered with white spores.

Fomitopsis pinicola affects birch, oak, ash, pine, spruce, fir, larch.

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Yellow-brown rot of the trunk (Photo: Roberto Zanon) is caused by the fungus Piptoporus betulinus – birch coppice. The fungus causes a mixed yellow-brown cracked rot of birch trunk. Growing trees are very rarely affected, parasitizing on weakened trees for various reasons. The lesion occurs through wounds. The mycelium develops first in the bark and sapwood, then penetrates to the center of the trunk. In the initial stages of rot, the wood becomes reddish and then yellow-brown. Gradually cracks form on the wood, it becomes rotten and easily ground into powder. Fruiting bodies appear in late summer, so it is difficult to detect damage to the tree.

 

Light yellow rot of the trunk (Photo: George Chernilevsky) is caused by the fungus Phellinus igniarius – a false truffle. The causative agent of rot develops only in the core of the trunk, so you can detect rot in trees that grow only on fruiting bodies. The beginning of wood rot is accompanied by the formation of longitudinal white spots and stripes, which then increase in size and cause the destruction of wood. At the final stage of decay, a light yellow rot with a large number of thin black lines is formed.

The pathogen Phellinus igniarius affects trees of all classes, ages, and with increasing age of plantations, fungal damage increases. The rot spreads in the shore at the bottom of the trunk, its length is up to 9 m.

When on the living, at first glance, the shore appear truffles, it means that it is already living its last days. Therefore, it is necessary to periodically inspect their trees for signs of stem rot before the formation of fruiting bodies of fungi.

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сосна пожовтіла

Yellow pine, what to do?

Pine, a genus of coniferous trees of the pine family. These are evergreen trees that can live 400-600 years. But what to do if your pine is not so green, and in some places you can see yellow needles?

Do not panic at once, thinking that the tree is disappearing or has already disappeared. Yellowing needles do not always indicate a problem.

Seasonal dumping of needles.

As deciduous plants drop leaves in autumn, so evergreen plants periodically drop their needles. Unlike deciduous trees, which drop all their leaves at once, pines, dropping old needles, retain most of the needles. Old needles turn yellow before falling off and the trees may seem sick.

Pine trees tend to shed needles in the fall, although they can shed them at other times of the year. The lifespan of needles is about 3-5 years, after which they are replaced. Most pine species retain their needles for several years before the old three-year-old needles fall.

Old yellow needles that drop pines, located closer to the inside of the tree. Because the young needle, which remains green, is on the outside of the tree, seasonal shedding of needles may go unnoticed in most species. However, white pine is an example of one species of pine that can lose a significant amount of needles in the fall.

Environmental factors that cause the fall of needles.

Pines are sensitive to wind damage. After a strong storm, the needles may turn yellow, and some trees eventually die. Some pines may remain green for a year before the needles turn yellow on the entire tree.
Pines can react to sharp fluctuations in temperature, especially in autumn, plant tissues can be injured, which eventually causes yellowing of the needles.

Road salt that gets on pines can burn plant tissues, causing yellowing of needles. Even air pollution can lead to pine disease.

Pine gets sick and turns yellow when transplanted.

The shock of transplanting can cause the needles to turn yellow, even if the tree is planted correctly. Improper planting techniques, such as planting a tree too deep or not enough water until the plant has taken root, can turn evergreen pines into yellow pines.

Planting pine trees in hot weather instead of autumn or winter can cause the needles to turn yellow first, and then completely turn brown.

Nutrient deficiency.

All plants need water and nutrients, but individual needs depend on plant species. A number of nutrient deficiencies can cause the leaves to turn yellow.

One example is nitrogen deficiency, which can cause needles to turn yellow. Pines and other plants should be fertilized according to the recommendations of soil tests to make sure that you meet their needs.

Pests and diseases, yellowing of needles.

If your evergreen plant turns yellow in the spring, the culprit may be several pests that feed on pine needles: mites. As their feeding progresses, symptoms include curvature and yellowing of the needles.

If the needles turn brown, you need to check the tree for the presence of bark beetles or bast eaters. Another pest of pine is the foliar nematode. Nematodes feed on plant tissue, which makes the needles yellow.

The cause of yellowing can be the following diseases: fusarium wilt, shingles, rust.

In any case, if you find yellowed needles, you should consult a specialist. Timely and correct treatment gives an effective result, and pines will delight with their greenery and aroma for many years to come.

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Fusarium wilt, early detection, prevention and treatment

Fusarium wilt or tracheomycosis is one of the most dangerous diseases of pine, caused by a fungus of the genus Fusarium. Fusarium wilt can affect all types of pine, as well as larch, fir and spruce.

Symptoms of fusarium wilt:

  • Young seedlings wither and die and secrete resin on the bark. Stems discolor, plants acquire purple or blue hues.
  • The needles become red, brown or chlorotic (pale, yellow or yellow-white) and die from the base up, or the whole seedling dies.
  • In adult trees, the pathogen causes yellowing of the needles, which later becomes reddish-brown.
  • When removing the bark from the bottom of the trunk, you can see the resin released from pine tissues.
  • Repeated death of the tips of branches due to repeated infections can lead to significant death of the tree crown.
  • Female cones on infected branches can also be affected, but do not reach full size and form underdeveloped seeds.

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Prevalence of fusarium wilt:

Spores are spread by wind or can be carried by fog or rain, falling on trees or seedlings through wounds caused by hail, wind damage, removal of branches. The pathogen can also be spread by insects living under the bark. These include weevils of the genus Pityophthorus and bark beetles of the genus Ips. In addition, fusarium wilt can enter the plant through the roots. The damaged area can be infected within 2-3 days after the injury. For the development of the fungus, the optimum temperature is 24 ° C. Plants in a state of stress, namely overdried or transfused are particularly prone to fusarium wilt. The fungus can live in wood for more than a year.

Prevention of fusarium wilt:

  • Maintain optimal soil moisture.
  • Regular inspection of trees for the presence of pests that are carriers of fusarium wilt.
  • Proper pruning of trees.
  • Examine trees for signs of fusarium wilt to respond and overcome the disease in a timely manner.

At the slightest signs of plant disease with fusarium wilt should immediately consult a specialist:

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Bacterial dropsy of oak

Бактеріальна водянка дуба це системне, інфекційне, бактеріальне захворювання, збудником якого може бути Еnterobacter nimipressuralis або Enterobacter cloacae .

Вражає переважно зрілі дерева у віці старше 50 років, але останнім часом його виявили на молодших деревах діаметр яких 10 – 12 см.  Хімічно, рідина, що витікає з дерева – це насправді ферментований сік, який є спиртовим та токсичним для нових ділянок деревини. Саме ця рідина і містить значну кількість збудника, а також приваблює комах, що і є переносниками захворювання.

Симптоми:

Захворювання характеризується тим, що дерева «кровоточать» або просочуються темною рідиною від невеликих уражень або розщеплень у їхній корі. Потік слизу викликається бактеріальною інфекцією як у внутрішніх ділянках деревини так і на зовнішніх ділянках дерева. Темна рідина просочується через вертикальні щілини між пластинами кори і стікає по стовбуру дерева. Рідина може то висихати, то знову витікати, в залежності від пори року.

Можна відчути кислий запах, що часто асоціюється з мокрим деревом, оскільки просочена водою деревина з великою кількістю відмерлих бактерій починає руйнуватися. Нагромадження бактеріальної популяції в дереві викликає бродіння, внаслідок чого збільшується  внутрішній тиск газу. Іноді в’яне листя і та можуть відмирати гілки. Але найчастіше рідина під тиском витікає з ран.

Багато разів вторинні гриби та бактерії заражають поверхневу рідину і створюють на корі слизьку текстуру.

У живій тканині під «кровотечами» утворюється ураження. Це ознака розпаду тканин. Деякі дерева гинуть через 4-6 років після появи симптомів.

Умови для розвитку бактеріальної водянки:

Бактеріальна водянка уражує ослаблені дерева, а симптоми розвиваються протягом 18 місяців.

Бактерії, що спричиняють водянку дуба, витримують низький вміст кисню і часто зустрічаються у ґрунтах та на поверхні рослин. Вони потрапляють через різні рани як надземної частини дерева, так і через коріння. Бактерії  найбільш активізуються у зрілих та старих тканинах рослини.

Лікування бактеріальної водянки дуба:

Ефективне лікування дубів від бактеріальної водянки дуже складне. Тому найкращий метод лікування, це профілактика  – підтримувати загальне здоров’я дерева, щоб дерево могло виокремити уражену частину деревини та виростити добру деревину навколо хворої ділянки.

Уникайте поранень дерева. Швидко обріжте зламані гілки, щоб туди не потрапила інфекція.

Пам’ятайте, що здорове дерево зазвичай долає  бактеріальну водянку. Якщо зберігати дерева здоровими, вони напевно переможуть хворобу.

При будь-яких ознаках бактеріальної водянки дуба та інших незрозумілих станів Ваших дерев необхідно одразу звернутись до спеціалістів. Наші фітопатологи зможуть вирішити проблему в боротьбі з бактеріальною водянкою, щоб вчасно та ефективно вилікувати Ваші дуби.